Psychology exam1

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  1. learning
    A relatively enduring change in behavior or thinking that results from experiences
  2. Pavlov
    Russian physiologist, never intended to do psychological research. developed theprinciples of classical conditioning.
  3. Skinner
    states that rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated
  4. operant conditioning
    learning that occurs when voluntary actions become associated with consequences
  5. Bandura
    Learning by observing the behavior of another person, or model
  6. modeling
    the individual or character whose behavior is being imitated
  7. shaping
    operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations
  8. Negative and positive reinforces
    • Involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a target behavior (this increases the likelihood it will occur again).
    • Occurs when reinforcers are added or presented following the target behavior.
  9. encoding
    The process through which information enters our memory system
  10. Retrieval
    the process of accessing information encoded and stored in memory
  11. automatic processing
    processing information with no or little consciousness
  12. serial position
    ability to recall items in a list depending on where they are
  13. Chunking
    grouping to increase the quantity of information that can be maintained in short-term memory
  14. iconic memory
    visual photographs that dissolve in a second
  15. Resistant to extension,
    Resistance is that by which occupied ex tension (body) and empty extension
  16. fixed ratio
    Reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses
  17. Amygdala
    almond-shaped structures in the limbic system that processes basic emotions and associated memories
  18. Hippocampus
    a pair of sea-horse shaped structures located in the limbic system; creates new memories
  19. repression
    the way the ego moves uncomfortable thoughts and memories from the conscious level to the unconscious
  20. Prototype
    the ideal example of a natural concept
  21. Concept
    mental representations of categories of objects, situations, and ideas that belong together based on their central features or characteristics
  22. Howard Gardner
    multiple intelligences
  23. Sternberg
    triarchic theory, analytic creative practical intelligence
  24. intelligence test
    Stanford-Binet, Wechsler tests
  25. aptitude test
    a test designed to determine a person's ability in a particular skill or field of knowledge
  26. achievement test
    a test designed to measure the knowledge or proficiency of an individual in something that has been learned or taught
  27. cognitive psychology
    branch of psychology that focuses on the way people process information. It looks at how we process information we receive and how the treatment of this information leads to our responses
  28. disadvantage of punishment
    Can cause aggression. It's reinforcing to the punisher. Punishment doesn't work well in the long run
  29. convergent thinking
    conventional approach to problem solving
  30. divergent thinking
    the ability to devise many solutions to a problem
  31. fluid intelligence
    the ability to think in abstract and create associations among concepts
  32. crystallized intelligence
    knowledge gained through learning and experience
  33. Flynn effect
    the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores
  34. Chomsky (language)
    language is innate, or in other words, we are born with a capacity for language. Language rules are influenced by experience and learning, but the capacity for language itself exists with or without environmental influences
  35. insight
    an understanding or solution that occurs in a sudden stroke of clarity
  36. flashbulb memory
    a detailed account of circumstances surrounding an emotionally significant or shocking, sometimes historic, event.
  37. IQ
    Mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
  38. intellectual disability
    delay in thinking, intelligence, as well as social and practical skills, evident before age 18
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Psychology exam1
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