1. Biodiversity
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    -The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region

    • -In order for biodiversity to remain high, diverse ecosystems need to remain
    • sustainable
  2. Protect
    -To guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern

    -Protecting species and the ecosystem they inhabit are critical to maintaining biodiversity
  3. Biodiversity hotspots
    -Exists in a place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatively small area

    - e.g. Carolinian Canada in southwestern Ontario
  4. Community
    -All the population of the different species that interacts in a specific area or ecosystem

    -For example fish, corals, and sponges are part of the coral reef
  5. Dominant species
    -Species that are so abundant that the have largest biomass of any community member

    -In terrestrial environments, primary producers are always the dominant producers

    -The removal of a dominant species can cause a decrease in biodiversity within an ecosystem

    For example: the american chestnut tree was wiped out by a fungus that was accidentally introduced. As a result, seven species of insects became extinct
  6. Keystone species
    -A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of the ecosystem

    -Keystone species are generally not abundant, and they can be plants or animals

    -For example: the sea otter is a keystone species. It eats sea urchins that eat the kelp that kills fish. When the otter population decreased, the urchin population increased, and when the urchin population increased the kelp population decreased killing fishes.
  7. Captive breeding
    - The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled setting to increase population size

    -e.g. zoos and wildlife reserves
  8. Ecosystem engineer
    -A species that causes such dramatic changes to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem

    -The beaver is the best known example of an ecosystem engineer. The clearing and ponds it creates support organisms, such as the beaver pond basket tail dragonfly.
  9. Succession
    The series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time, following a disturbance

    -e.g.The renewal of a forest after a fire
  10. Habitat loss
    -The destruction of habitats, usually from human activities or natural disasters

    -Habitat loss can occur naturally through natural disasters such as earthquakes or tornadoes, or more often through human activities like urbanization, deforestation, or river draining

    -Habitat loss can cause loss of species and causes biodiversity to be threatened
  11. Deforestation
    -Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses.

    - Deforestation happens for farming purposes, ranching and urban use. In these cases, trees are never re-planted.

    -Deforestation causes habitat loss
  12. Alien species
    -species introduced to new parts of the biosphere from other regions; may be released on purpose, or accidentally in shipments of food or other good

    -Alien species that become invasion species can take over the habitat of the native species

    -Zebra mussel: native to Asia; introduced to the great lakes through ballast water. Organism were impacted who share the same food
  13. Invasive species
    -a species that can take over the habitat of native species

    -Invasive species usually upset the equilibrium of an ecosystem

    -e.g. Zebra mussels introduced in the great lakes is an example of an invasive species
  14. Overexploitation
    -Use of extraction of a resource until it is depleted

    e.g. overfishing of the Atlantic cod, overhunting of passenger pigeons
  15. Extinction
    -The death of all individual of a species

    -May happen natural, may be caused by slow changes in the ecosystem, or through mass extinction which is happens quickly

    -e.g. Dinosaurs are an example who have been extinct.
  16. Biodiversity crisis
    The current accelerated rate of extinction

    -Scientist believe that human's are causing a biodiversity crisis. Their activities that lead to deforestation, habitat destruction, and air water pollution is causing animal extinction.
  17. Restoration ecology
    -The renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human invention

    -e.g. mining and reclamation

    Methods of restoration: reforestation and wetland restoration
  18. Reforestation
    regrowth of a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down
  19. Bio control
    the use of a species to control the population

    e.g. use of a European fly to control the gypsy moth
  20. Bioremediation
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    The use or living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally
  21. bioaugmentation
    the use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soil.

    e.g. use of cover to add nitrogen to depleted soil
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