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material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
largely water with dissolved protein, salts,sugars, and other solutes
metabolic machinery of the cell
metabolite storage and pigments
what is cytoplasm made up of?
cytosol, cytoplasmic organelles, and inclusions
- contain their own DNA/RNA
- provide most of the cell's ATP
- contain protein and rRNA
- site of protein synthesis
where protein that will stay in the cell are made
membrane bound ribosomes
where proteins that will go to membrane or leave the cell are made
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
- studded with ribosomes
- assist in making secreted protein and integral membrane proteins
- in liver-detoxification of drugs
- testes- synthesis of steroid-based hormones
- intestinal cells- absorption,synthesis and transport of fats
- skeletal and cardiac muscle- storage and release of calcium
(pancakes) modifies things that were made in the rough ER
the process in the golgi apparatus
- transport vessels from ER fuse with the cis face of the golgi apparatus
- proteins pass through golgi to trans face
- secretory vesicles leave the trans face of the golgi and move to designated parts in cell
what is the cis face?
the part of the golgi that is closest to the ER
"receiving" side of golgi
spherical membranous bags containing digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes
they breaks things down
an enzyme that performs hydrolosis
endomembrane system are what?
- system of organelles that function to:
- produce, store and export biological molecules
- degrade potentially harmful substances
what are some of the endomembrane systems?
nuclear envelope, smooth and rough ER, lysosomes, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane
- membranous sacs contaning oxidases and catalases
- detoxify harmful or toxic substances
- neutralize dangerous radicals
highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons
they attack proteins, DNA, lipids/ they can modify DNa and cause mutations
dynamic elaborate series of rods running through the cytosol
consist of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
what are motor molecules fiel by?
9 triplet microtubules
they form the base of flagella
small barre shaped organelles located near the nucleus
what grabs the chromosomes in miosis?