PSYCH Test #1

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  1. John Locke
    • Forerunner of behaviorism 
    • Focuses on reinforcement and punishment and believed that experiences influence behaviors
    • Tabla rasa (blank slate): children are born blank and parents teach them 
    • Believed that children are born with temperaments
  2. Interdisciplinary & International
    • Contributions are coming from all areas of studies involving multiple cultures
    • Comparing and contrasting studies across cultures
  3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Believed children are born pure, without sin 
    • Children have natural impulses and should express themselves as they see fit 
    • Child either corrupted or enriched by society,
  4. Psychodynamic
    • Biology drives us 
    • Influenced by evolution: survival and reproduction 
    • Unconscious motives
  5. Behaviorism
    • Environmental 
    • Our experiences produce permanent changes
    • Importance of reinforcement and punishment to shape behaviors
  6. Constructivists
    • Piaget 
    • Genetics (biology) AND environment interact directly to cause change 
    • Direct route
    • Interaction and genes from parents
  7. Sociocultural
    • Vygotsky 
    • Genetics and environment interact indirectly 
    • ex) culture and religion
  8. Evolutionary Theories
    • Certain characteristics improve survival and those are more likely to be passed down to the next generation 
    • Has components of biology 
    • Based on Darwinism: traits that help survive and pass on genetics
  9. Information Processing Theories
    • Processed, stored, organized retrieved, and used 
    • Becomes more efficient over time 
    • Children of a certain age cannot process certain info, but at later age they can
    • ex) Dad's kids
  10. Socio-Learning Theories
    • Modeling and reinforcement 
    • observe people and imitate-response is reinforcement/punishment 
    • ex) boy puts on makeup, shows parents, they respond
  11. System Theories - Dynamic
    • Interactions of less complex systems lead to the development of more complex systems 
    • ex) reaching/grasping - visual and motor system combine to grab things 
    • Not good at first - batting/swatting; becomes more fine tuned
  12. Systems Theories - Ecological
    • Microsystem: direct interaction/influence on child ex) nutrition, parents, peers 
    • Mesosystem: interaction between peers, parent, teacher, eighborhood, church **also interaction within the circle ex) parents interact with child peers 
    • Exosystem: environments that affect them, but children don't have access to ex) parents job - money and benefits
    • Macrosystem: overall cultural values, customs, and resources ex) disposable diaper vs reusable diaper
  13. Objectivity
    • Unbiased 
    • Can have reader and conductor bias 
    • Don't change or influence the results to fit your bias
  14. Reliability
    • same results 
    • consistency, especially if only one person is a part of the study. If fail test today should not get 100% tomorrow
  15. Replicability
    done again in the same manner either by you or others
  16. Validity
    • is it truly measuring the variable?
    • are you measuring them correctly?
    • Intelligence test based on 3 questions is not valid
  17. Naturalistic Observation
    • Observe and record 
    • Little to no interaction with participants - insures that behaviors don't change because of your presence (may not even ask people to participate) 
    • Gathers info before conducting experiment 
    • Can observe on or multiple behaviors 
    • Ethnography: detailed description of culture; live with another culture for period of time (not good for naturalistic observation b/c of interaction); compare cultural development
  18. Survey
    • Predetermined set of questions 
    • Doesn't change from person to person 
    • Not experimental 
    • Used to find opinions, preferences, etc
  19. Correlational
    • Shows the relationship between two variables
    • Positive: both variable increase together
    • Negative: on increases, other decreases 
    • Zero: no cause and effect
  20. Clinical Interviews
    • adapt questions to each individual 
    • new questions depend on prior answer; focus on interested areas for clarification 
    • great for studying individual differences
    • Individual differences need to be ignored to determine patterns between individuals

    • Need more info, lots of DETAILS 
    • **Used in rare disorder to gain as much info as possible from one person
  21. Experimental Research
    • Researcher manipulate one variable and measure the other 
    • IV: manipulated (class size)
    • DV: measured (GPA) 
    • Random Assignment: present in IV; must have to classify as experiment 

    • Experiment control 
    • experimental group: receive manipulation 
    • control group: receives no  manipulation
  22. Quasi-experimental
    • Preexisting variable cannot be manipulated ex) gender, race/ethnicity/mental health 
    • can't always randomly assign/manipulate certain variables
  23. Longitudinal Research
    Same children observed repeatedly over time 

    • Selective attrition:  people more likely to drop out of study
    • Non-representative Sample
    • Practice effect: show improvement through practice, not changes in development 
    • Cross-generational problems: Out of date for new generations; no longer applies for 6yr olds
  24. Cross Sectional Research
    • Children of different ages all compared at one time
    • Given same task, see how answers change over ages 
    • Cohort effect: can't apply to other cohorts because of  different experiences ex) effects of 9/11 or JFK Assassination (majo generational events
  25. Cohort Sequential
    • Combo of cross sectional and longitudinal 
    • Same children from different age groups participate in whole test 
    • Test takes place over several years
    • Shorter than longitudinal 
    • Minimizes/identifies cohort effect
    • good choice if questioning development 
    • ex) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
    •       6 8 10 12 14 16 18
  26. Microgenetic
    • Adaptation of longitudinal study, only hours or days 
    • Follows mastery of a task presented to child 
    • Exposed to experience, see if changes occur 
    • Problem: may get better with practice (practice effect), may get bored
  27. Genotype
    • Genetic level 
    • ex) XX = female
  28. Phenotype
    • Expression of genes through various media 
    • Physical - breast etc.
  29. Homozygous
    • 2 of the same alleles (gene that influences specific trait)
    • ex) PP (dominant) ; pp (recessive)
  30. Heterozygous
    • Two different alleles 
    • ex) Pp
  31. Dominant
    • Characteristics are expressed
    • ex) broad lips, nearsighted, coarse hair
  32. Recessive
    • Characteristics not expressed 
    • two recessives needed for recessive to be expressed pp
    • ex) flat feet, lactose intolerance
  33. Polygenic
    • Multiple genes affect displayed genes
    • ex) height, eye color, body type
  34. Mutations
    • Error in gene replication 
    • Missing or extra genes 
    • Part of evolution to improve
  35. Genetic Imprinting
    • Alleles chemically marked to tell which parent it came from 
    • not sex linked 
    • ex) growth of fetus - mom want small, dad want big
  36. Down Syndrome
    • 3 copies of chromosome 21
    • Causes:mothers age, cell division, other possibilities 
    • PSYCH problems: intellectual disabilities 
    • Treatment: extra help in school; developmental therapies
  37. Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Blood cells in sickle shape 
    • Causes: inherited abnormal hemoglobin LO2 carrying of protein w/ red blood cells 
    • PSYCH problems: may increase the feeling of pain; fear of unpredictable pain
    • Treatment: daily dose of penicillin, folic acid for young kids 

  38. Red-green color blindness
    • x linked trait 
    • 2 recessive alleles to be seen in females
    • More common in males - inherited from mother who must have recessive trait
  39. Klinefilter Syndrome
    • Males born with extra X
    • Low testosterone - puberty suppressed, infertility, gynecomastia 
    • Speech Language disabilities
  40. Turner's Syndrome
    • Born w/ 1 X or missing part of X
    • Short stature, stunted puberty, infertility 
    • Learning disabilities mainly in math 
    • Hormone treatments
  41. Eugenics
    • Self directed human evolution 
    • sterilization, segregation, and selective breeding 
    • Nazis: Jews, gypsy, handicapped, prisoners deemed useless lives
  42. Plasticity
    • Critical Period: if don't learn then, it might be impossible (genie)
    • Sensitive Period: easier to learn in that time (2nd lang)
    • Brains lose what they no longer really need - difference in lemurs face
  43. Range of reaction
    • expressed characteristics depend on genes and environment 
    • ex) potential to be a genius must be nurtured through environment and opportunity
  44. Twin and Adoption Studies
    • Identical Twin: same genetics, same environment 
    • Fraternal Twins: different genetics, same environment 
    • Adoption: genes and environment different 
    • sees if child more like mother or the family raised in
  45. Blood incompatibility
    • Rh (protein) incompatibility 
    • mother (-) fetus (+)
    • mother create antibodies that attack baby if exposed to baby's blood
    • risks: intellectual disabilities, miscarriage, heart damage, death
  46. Maternal Age
    • 30 & up higher risk of miscarriage 
    • 20 & 30s similar for prenatal and birth problems like low birth weight and preeclampsia 
    • Teenage = higher problem for infant - maybe more social than physical
  47. Nutrition
    • Culture influences what you eat 
    • 2000-2800 calories ideal 
    • Bad nutrition = premature, low birth weight, abnormalities in cns, respiratory illness 
    • Studies on sensitive periods for nutrition during famines like netherlands
  48. Drugs and Pregnancy
    • Baby born addicted to drugs - may need to be weened off
    • low birth weight 
    • premature
    • lang/learning delays possible 
    • Prescriptions
    • ex) Thalidomide (combat morning sickness): treat morning sickness, children born w/o limbs 
    • ex) aspirin: thins baby blood
  49. Alcohol and Pregnancy
    • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 
    • physical: smooth philtrum, eye problems, microcephaly
    • PSYCH: intellectual disability, inappropriate sexual behavior 
    • Treat: counseling & school services
    • Can't tell how much alcohol needed to affect
  50. AIDS
    • Transmitted during pregnancy/ at birth 
    • preterm birth, low weight, weak immune system 
    • social and psych stigma
  51. Radiation
    • Increase malformations, time of exposure determines whats affected 
    • microcephaly (small head), Intell Dis, growth, childhood cancer
  52. Pollution
    • chemicals in environment have negative effect of fetus 
    • mercury in fish - cerebral palsy, skull deformities 
    • Lead poisoning - poor mental health and motor planning
  53. Learning in the Womb
    • Learn moms voice 
    • Cat in hat study: read cat in hat 2x/day last month and half, prefered to other stories
  54. Social Expectation for Baby
    • ideas based on gender; change environment 
    • if deformed shown less loving interactions
  55. Habituation
    • attention decreases after first exposure 
    • ex) fascination with pen; if happened every time, no work ever done
  56. Dishabituation
    • Slight change in original stimulus increases attention 
    • ex) highlighter vs pen
  57. Babinski, Moro, and Rooting Reflexes
    • Babinski: stroke foot - toes fan and curl 
    • Moro: startle reflex; arms fling out and quickly bring in as if grabbing for something 
    • Rooting: stroke cheek, turn had, open mouth
  58. Imitation
    • Babies can imitate simple expressions 
    • Mirror sticking out tongue 
    • Not sure if true imitation or not, baby not aware of copy
    • Mirror neurons fire in the brain
  59. Crying
    • Reflex, but will gain control 
    • causes unconscious reaction in us of protection - make baby stop crying
    • In famines, crybabies more likely to live, crying gets their needs met
  60. Smiling
    • Biological - automatic reflex, even newborns smile in rem sleep. same brain patterns for a while when awake 
    • Social - when you see someone smile your social reaction is to smile back. blind need feedback too. tactile, intonations, etc. they smile
  61. Maturation
    • Natural biological stages (muscle strength, puberty)
    • Brain matures over time (problem solving)
    • Shift from reflex to coordination (sucking becomes nursing)
  62. Classical Conditioning
    • associating a neutral stimulus with something that already causes a reflexive response
    • ex) mother stroke baby head before nursing, eventually stroking causes baby to begin sucking 
    • UCS-milk
    • UCR-nurse
    • CS-stroke
    • CR-nurse (lip suck)
    • Linking to survival value makes conditioning easier 
    • if stroke w/ no milk response will fade
    • Fear not conditioned until 6 months (little albert)
  63. Operant Conditioning
    • behavior followed by stimulus that changes likelihood of behavior happening again 
    • Reinforcement - increase behavior
    • Punishment - decrease behavior
    • Social smiling uses reinforcement - baby smile, you smile, baby happy-like reaction, smile again
  64. Constructivist
    • Piaget 
    • Schema: basic category of knowledge; gained throughout development (dog; pet)
    • Assimilation: add info to schema; will not change schema significantly (small, furry, high pitch bark-can be big, longer fur than dog at home)
    • Accommodation: significantly change or create new schema (see cat, say dog, get corrected -->new category
  65. Culture Influence on Baby
    • Impact begins early 
    • Some influence can be indirect but still affect child development 
    • Culture -->mother (culture filter) --> child
    • Child receives aspects of the culture that the mother wants it to receive
    • Cultural variations ex) how long should a child be breast fed
  66. Brain and Visual Cliff
    • Brain grows in size
    • Crawling begins 
    • Plexiglas looks like cliff, younger children crawl over cliff; older children see as danger and only go to the edge 
    • same happened again when begin to walk
  67. Understanding Quantity
    • Infants respond to differences
    • 3 people stand in line; cover and remove one; baby knows something changed 
    • Not conclusive whether they truly know difference in amount or if they see difference
  68. Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reasoning
    • aware that actions effect environment 
    • purposefully pick up toy to put in mouth
  69. Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reaction
    • Clear intentions and direct them towards goal
    • Imitate others and explore environment 
    • recognize that objects have certain qualities
  70. Object Permanence
    know that something still exists even when they cant see it
  71. A-not-B Error
    • Use to blankets
    • Hide object under one repeatedly 
    • Change to other blanket in plain view of child
    • Child still pick 1st blanket
  72. Diamond 1991
    • memory lasts only a few seconds; look one way even when they know better 
    • Repeat movements/actions 
    • Card sorting, when method changed, child did not change
  73. Categorizing
    Group similar objects and eventsOrganize both physical and social worldReduces amount of new info they encounter every day
  74. Substage 5
    Trial and error experimentation
  75. Substage 6
    Symbolic representation
  76. Object permanence substage 6
    • will search for object
    • reason that it is close by 
    • less likely to make a not b error when watching
  77. Problem solving
    • trial and error 
    • use what they learn from previous trial and error 
    • ex) trying to pull stick through crib
  78. Culture in Play
    • might use some tool parents use in play ex) mother cook, daughter play cook/help with little things
    • some cultures don't promote play
  79. Imitation
    • Deferred imitation: imitating something seen at an earlier date, even when no have ability to complete before 
    • Can finish activities that others started or at least attempt to complete
Card Set
PSYCH Test #1
PSYCH Test #1
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