Regional Studies Test 1

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  1. What is a watershed/drainage basin?
    A land area which contributes runoff to a body of water such as a stream or lake; they cross county, state, and national boundaries
  2. What is hydrology?
    The study of water, its hydrologic cycle, water resources, and environmental watershed sustainability
  3. What watershed are we in here at Mars Hill?
    French Broad
  4. What defines the boundaries of the watershed within which MHU lies?
    Its high elevation; Bruce Street head H20 in development
  5. What are the characteristics of our watershed?
    We are near the headwaters of a 1st order stream.
  6. stream order
    how far removed a stream is from its headwaters.
  7. first order stream
    a headwater stream with no tributaries.
  8. Second order stream
    Two first order streams intersect
  9. Third order stream
    Two second order streams join
  10. Stream order does not increase until when?
    Until another stream of equal or higher order joins the stream.
  11. What are some of the natural features you see in our watershed?
    Rocks, trees, slope, dirt, grass
  12. What is the difference between slow moving water and fast moving water?
    Fast-moving freshwater has more oxygen but fewer nutrients than slow-moving water. The currents and turbulence of rapidly moving water keeps organic materials and sediment from accumulating. The outerbank erodes more quickly in fast water.
  13. What types of things can impact water quality?
    Riparian zones, water use, livestock, decreased forestry and farms; non-point source pollution, diffuse area pollution, non-native and invasive plants
  14. What activities do you see in the watershed at MHU?
    parking lot, golf course, baseball field, foot traffic
  15. Visual indicators of water pollution
    Trout, insects (in healthy water); algae (fertilizer pollution in nonhealthy water)
  16. Explain the meaning of the quote: "We all live downstream."
    We all live in a watershed and our individual actions directly affect our watershed and those living downstream from us.
  17. Smoky Mountain National Park Forest of Today
    • Warmer climate than past
    • Descending from high to low elevations: Boreal spruce-Fir forest, temperate forest, heath balds, mixed oak and pine, cove howds, tulip tree
  18. Smoky Mountain National Park Forest 12,500-10,000 BP
    • Cooler Climate than today
    • Descending from high to low elevations: Krummholz, Boreal forest, temperate deciduous forest
  19. Smoky Mountain National Park Forest 16,500 to 12,500 BP
    • Cooler climate than today and that after 12,500 BP
    • Descending from high to low elevations: Alpine Tundra and Krummholz, Boreal Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest
  20. Smoky Mountain National Park Forest 20,000-16,500 BP
    • Very cold, snow tops, with forest at bottom
    • Descending from high to low elevations: Snowfields, Alpine Tundra, Krummholz, Boreal Fore
  21. What is the relationship between elevation, landform, and communities?
    We can predict the areas biodiversity based on temperature, elevation, and the shape of the land. As the elevation gets higher, the termperature gets cooler and typically wetter. As the elevation decreases, the temperature gets warmer and typically drier. Plants and animals respond to the type of landscape and temperature. As the climate cools and warms, plants and animals move around. Water tends to run off the tops of ridges and peaks and collect in valleys and coves, affecting the lands fertility.
  22. What types of forests are typical at our elevation (4500-6000)?
    Northern Coniferous forests, Heath Balds, northern hardwoods
  23. What was the entry point to western settlers?
    Cumberland Gap
  24. Name some ranges within the Blue Ridge Province
    • Clockwise on map starting from west to east, south to north
    • Great Smokies, newfound, Balds, Unakas, Roans, Craggies, Blacks
  25. Explain the phenomenon of "islands" that form at high elevations
    The higher elevations isolate species much like an island does and adds to biodiversity.
  26. Why is southern Appalachia so special to biologists?
    It is a unique landscape that offers a high amount of biodiversity, along with many species of plants and animals endemic to the area.
  27. What does land influence in terms of human living?
    It influences how they will use the land, their resources, transportation, accessibility, lifestyles, the way they adapt to a region
  28. Endemic
    A plant or an animal native or restricted to a certain area or region
  29. Sprawl
    Consequence of exurban development where the city beomes trickled and spread out. The expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities.
  30. exurban development
    a district outside a city, especially a prosperous area beyond the suburbs.
  31. mountain chain
    a series of ranges of mountains, uninterrupted
  32. mountain range
    a series of geographically similar mountains that are connected together generally to form a long line (chain) of mountains.
  33. Biodiversity
    The great variety of all life forms on earth - the different plants, animals and micro-organisms and the ecosystems of which they are a part.
  34. Swidden agriculture
    Land cleared by girdling trees then burning. The ash provides fertilizer. New fields are cleared as productivity of old fields declined. Switch in forest composition: After advent of horticulture 50% of wood in archeological sites (hearths) is from early successional tree species compared to 10% prior. Early succ: pine, cherry, tuliptree, birch; Late succ: oak, ash, hickory
  35. What 2 things impact the areas ecologically?
    Elevation and landform
  36. Explain land use and land cover changes in this area from the civil war forward.
    Early on (1700-1860), the Europeans settled on limestone soils and practiced mixed farming. There was woodland grazing of livestock. The balds were good for pastures. By the 1800s to the early 1900s the land was used for substinence and market. The landscapes became largely cleared. By the time of industrialization, more and more land became cleared for logging, railroads and large areas of deforestation. This devastates the environment (AVL flood 1916). By 1920, forest preservations acts were put into place. Conservation and reforestation occurs and then (1950-2000) there is an increase in tourism and exurban expansion.
  37. Forest via secondary succession
    Occurs in the mid-1900s, decline in agriculture, expansion of forest
  38. Residential/suburban/urban development
    Exurban expansion mid to late 1900s
  39. Increased homes and buildings in the forest
  40. Why did land use rules change after 1960?
    Because ties to agriculture weaken, more people want views and build on ridges and steep slopes, and improved transportation increases a commuter culture with expanding exurban development
  41. Why has land cover increased rather than decreased in this century?
    Efforts to conserve, agriculture is not local anymore.
  42. How old are these mountains?
    480 million years ago
  43. How were they formed?
    Five hundred million years ago, continental fragments drifted toward Laurentia, taking minerals and debris with it. Hard deposits melded and pushed up, for millions of years. About 300 million years ago, Laurentia and Gondwanda merged into a supercontinent (Pangea), pushing more rock upwards, to form alp like ranges. Then, rain and wind pushed the Alps down into a plateau over another 100 million years. Then for about 180-200 million years, plates pushed Pangaea into today's continents. There was continued periodic pushing and folding pushed up rock formations. Then about 65 million years ago, a mass of gneiss and shchiss exposed a jagged terrain that resembled a fishhook with an atypical cross range. Instead of weathering, into round hills, these hardened rocks, resistant to wind and erosion. Because of their thick, dark forest, they were given the name Black Mountains, or the "Black"
  44. Name some of the rocks found in Southern Appalachia
    Limestone, granite, marble, spruce pine quartz, gold
  45. Why is it important to know that NO glaciations (the ice age) has taken place in this area? How does that impact the area?
    Unlike the northern part of the region, no ice age makes the biodiversity unique to the region
  46. Why is the creation story important to understanding Cherokee culture?
    It depicts how they interact with nature and view the world.
  47. What are some of the major differences between the culture and values of the early Cherokee and values of the European settlers?
    The Cherokee had no written language, their spirituality was centered on balance and the Cherokee were a part of the nature where the Europeans felt they had the God given right to use nature.
  48. Who are Kanati and Selu? Why are they important to the Cherokee?
    Brother and sister, Kanati was the first man hunter and Selu was the first woman that gave the Cherokee people the gift of corn. It is important in understanding the Cherokee culture, especially the roles of men and women and their concept of balance. Hunting has been rewarded with hard work and a labor of great skill among the Cherokee. Selu's spirit is important and valued at each harvest.
  49. What is the name of the first Cherokee city/settlement? How were these cities organized?
    Kituwa on the Tuckasegee River, formerly next to and now part of Qualla Boundary (the reserve of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians) in North Carolina, as the original Cherokee settlement in the Southeast.
  50. What was the Cherokee system of government like before and after the European arrival?
    Council house was the central seat of village government.
  51. Be able to explain the 2 party Cherokee governance system.
    The Cherokees were originally governed by a "two party" system of elders. ThClanse "whites" represented the clans and were in charge of the religious aspects of society. The "reds" were younger men and were in charge of war. This system was destroyed in an uprising 300 years before European contact. Towns would go on to be governed by two units, a white government and red government.
  52. What is Duyuktv and why is it important to the Cherokee? Be able to give an example of this.
    The concept of balance was crucial to Cherokee culture. They believed that if the balance of the universe was offset, then it must be corrected. This idea of balance led the Cherokee people to pray and give thanks to their spirits. Men would honor slain animals with dance and by using every part of the kill. (Women would only take the fourth plant found in the wild and leave gifts for Yunwi Tsunsdi, the Little People) (Man = Woman; Rights of a Person = Good of the Group)
  53. What is the Green corn ceremony?
    During harvest, the Green Corn Ceremony honored the Corn Mother, Selu. It would consist of dancing, washing and purifying the body, and the relighting of the town fires.
  54. What are the 3 sisters?
    The Cherokee's cultivated diet of corn, beans, and squash. It is often cultivated together in a pattern where the beans and squash encircle the corn.
  55. What are some Cherokee games?
    Stickball, the corn stock shoot, blowgun shooting, Cherokee Marbles, Chunkey
  56. What was the "Civilization Policy" of 1789?
    Beginning of the Indian removal effort, in 1789, the U.S. government passed the "Civilization Policy" aimed at ending the "Indian problem" by encouraging them to act as white people do.
  57. What was a major factor in initiating the trail of tears?
    By the late 1820's, gold had been discovered in Georgia and Andrew Jackson was elected president, two very destructive events in Cherokee history. Georgia began distributing Cherokee land to white citizens as President Jackson encouraged Congress to enact Indian removal legislation (The Indian Removal Act (1830)).
  58. What is the Trail of Tears?
    The forceful removal of the Cherokee began on May 24, 1838. Cherokees from across the Southeast were rounded up and escorted to "forts" and then to internment camps. Through the summer and winter of 1838-1839, 16 groups of Cherokee people were marched west. Scholars believe that four to eight thousand died during the removal and first year in Cherokee.
  59. How did some Cherokee manage to stay behind (off the Trail of Tears)?
    Sixty families of the Oconaluftee Citizen Indians were able to remain on their lands during the removal process. Over three hundred Cherokees who were not granted permission to stay attempted to escape to the woods to hide. Many were arrested. Tsali and his family killed two soldiers-Following Tsali's capture and execution, U.S. soldiers stopped hunting Cherokee's who had fled.
  60. Who was Sequoyah and what did he do?
    Sequoyah was born in the Overhill Towns and was an accomplished silversmith. Got the inspiration from English writing to create a written language for the Cherokee. Process took him 10 years with the help of his daughter. He demonstrated his creation to the Cherokee council in 1821. He convinced the western band first then brought his creation east by using a letter written by the western chief to read to eastern chief. The Cherokee nation adopted the language in 1825.
  61. What is the clan system? How is your clan determined? How are gender roles different in this system from other western systems?
    Clan members are considered brother and sisters and belong to the same family. Cherokee society is historically matrilineal; meaning clanship comes from the mother. The knowledge of a person's clan is important for many reasons; historically, and still today among Cherokee traditionalists, it is forbidden to marry within your clan. In addition, when seeking spiritual guidance and Indian doctoring, it is necessary to name your clan. Seating at ceremonial stomp dances is by clan, as well.
  62. What are some of the positive and negative results of European contact with the Cherokee?
    Positive Results: Peaceful cultural exchange, Traded goods, New Technology, Intermarriage, Trips to England; Negative Results: Disease, Conflict and war, Loss of land, Decrease in population, Federal intervention through legislation
  63. Who was Henry Timberlake?
    An emissary from the British colonies to the Overhill Cherokee during the 1761-1762 Timberlake Expedition. Timberlake's account of his journeys to the Cherokee, published as his memoirs in 1765, became a primary source for later studies of their eighteenth-century culture.
  64. What was the Juan Pardo expedition?
    An exploration mission through what is now NC, SC and eastern Tennessee
  65. What were Juan Pardo's orders?
    Forge a route to Mexico. He went north instead of west. He was to pacify the Indians, convert them to Christianity, and take Control of the lands he found in name of the crown.
  66. Why do we know so much about these Spanish expeditions?
    The whole expedition was recorded as a legal, detailed document maintained by a notary (Juan Bandelera)
  67. Why were the Spanish trying to colonize the Americas?
    To place a stronger foothold on the coast, to increase trade and expansion, spread and conversion of the catholic faith of the indigenous peoples.
  68. What findings helped archeologists discover that there was in fact a fort at the Berry site, as opposed to just trade between natives and the Spanish?
    Nail, evidence of a fort that has been established there; also mounds of burned structures, olive jars
  69. What did the Spanish require of the Native Americans according to the notary's writings?
    Corn and cribs for corn
  70. What types of items did the Spanish trade with the Native Americans?
    Taffeta, hatches, axes, enamel buttons
  71. How did Fort San Juan come to its demise?
    The Native Americans killed the inhabitants of the fort and burned it
  72. What are the different names for Joara? Know where those names originated.
    Cuenca-given by Juan Pardo; San Juan - name given to the fort taken from mother country
  73. What is Santa Elena?
    A Spanish settlement on what is now Parris Island, South Carolina; was the capital of Spanish Florida from 1566 to 1587, established under Pedro Men?ndez de Avil?s, the first governor of Spanish Florida
  74. Melungeons
    A group of people of people living reclusively in the mountains, recorded as early as 1690. There are many theories as to their racial make-up?have black, straight hair, Mediterranean complexions, blue eyes, and high cheek bones. Recent studies indicate that that these people are a mix of sub-Saharan Africans and Europeans
  75. Ulster Scots
    Earliest settlers, Results of the Plantation Project in Ireland; The culture of the Scotch-Irish is strong here, and it is the dominant culture
  76. English
    • Came as early as 1673
    • One group of English founded a small town called Rugby that was to provide a place for younger sons of English gentry to grow up. This town had everything an English man could ask for
  77. African Americans
    • Probably the first Africans came over with the Spanish and other Europeans as slaves - They brought their culture as well. Appalachia was generally against slavery, though some people here had slaves. First anti-slavery journals published in Jonesboro, Some African Americans came to the coal industry after the civil war
    • Populations of African Americans in Appalachia remained small
  78. Germans
    Early settlers that traded with everyone, particularly with the Ulster Scots and assimilated their music and folk tales
  79. Italians
    Came for the mines (mistreated, almost like indentured servants); Largest group of immigrants in the early twentieth century. Most returned to their home country to fight in WWI
  80. French
    Arrived in the 1600-1700s. Some of the French who settled in this area were Huguenots feeling persecution
  81. What are the different ways to define a region?
    Land, (geography-climate), people (their role, government), culture (music, art, religion, common issues)
  82. Long hunter
    Went on long hunting expeditions, gone 6-8 months, used long guns
  83. Great wagon road
    Was an improved trail through the Great Appalachian Valley from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, and from there to Georgia in colonial America.
  84. Tree girdling
    The complete removal of a strip of bark from around the entire circumference of a tree that results in the death of the area above the girdle over time.
  85. What is the Cumberland Gap and what role did the Cumberland Gap play in settlement?
    Is a narrow pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U.S. states of Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee. It was a key passageway long used by Native Americans, and was brought to the attention of settlers in 1750 by Dr. Thomas Walker, a Virginia physician and explorer. The path was explored by a team of frontiersmen led by Daniel Boone, making it accessible to pioneers who used it to journey into the western frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee.
  86. What major farming enterprise did the Scotch-Irish contribute to the economy in Appalachia?
  87. What was the State of Franklin?
    An unrecognized, autonomous "territory" located in what is today eastern Tennessee, created in 1784 from part of the territory west of the Appalachian Mountains that had been offered by North Carolina as a cession to Congress to help pay off debts related to the American War for Independence. It was founded with the intent of becoming the fourteenth state of the new United States
  88. What was the role of Appalachia in the Revolutionary war?
    The men of Appalachia, known as Overmountain Men are best known for their role in the American victory at the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780. The term "overmountain" refers to the fact that their settlements were west of, or "over", the Appalachians. They came over the mountains from parts of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee to form a militia and fight in the battle of Kings Mountain.
  89. What happened at Kings Mountain?
    The Overmountain Men of 1780 gathered from the hills and valleys of western North Carolina, including today's northeast Tennessee, and from southwest Virginia. They joined forces with Patriot militiamen from the Yadkin Valley and Piedmont of North Carolina and from South Carolina and Georgia as well to surprise an invading British Army. During two weeks in the fall of 1780, this host of Southern, backcountry militiamen crossed the Appalachian mountain barrier and tracked down a detachment of the British Army under the command of General Lord Charles Cornwallis. After an all-night ride through a cold, rainy October darkness, these Patriot militiamen surrounded their Loyalist prey atop a small rise near the North Carolina-South Carolina line. In the battle that followed, this determined host of volunteer militiaman won a decisive victory that changed the course of the Revolutionary War
  90. How does the deer skin trade impact the economy during the Revolutionary era?
    It became a necessary currency between the Indians and the Europeans. It was as good as money for trade.
  91. Who was Daniel Boone? What is he known for?
    Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, and selling their pelts in the fur market. It was through this occupational interest that Boone first learned the easy routes to the area. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains and founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.
  92. What was Rutherford Trace?
    An expedition led by Griffith Rutherford sought to eliminate the Cherokee as a British ally and to punish them for attacking white settlements. In one month, Rutherford's men left dozens of Cherokee villages in ruins with hundreds of acres of crops destroyed and livestock killed or seized.
  93. Explain the role of droving in post-revolutionary Appalachia
    Drovers led herd of animals to market
  94. What was the role of slavery in pre-civil war Appalachia
    Enslavement in Appalachia varied by region. Elite Cherokee people held Africans in enslavement in the Southern Appalachia region, but the topography did not allow large plantation systems found in the lowlands. In the southern region, non-slave holders were in the majority, and the area also contained a large number of landless whites. Like the nation as a whole, Appalachia was equally divided by Civil War loyalties. The elite held slaves in more burgeoning towns (like Buncombe County)
  95. What happed at the Shelton Laurel Massacre?
    The execution of 13 accused Union sympathizers on or about January 18, 1863 by a Confederate regiment in the Shelton Laurel Valley of Madison County, North Carolina at the height of the Civil War. The event sparked outrage among North Carolina Governor Zebulon B. Vance and Solicitor Augustus Merrimon (the latter of whom investigated the event), While the massacre destroyed the military career and reputation of Lieutenant-colonel James A. Keith, the commander who ordered the executions, he was never brought to justice for the incident
  96. When did Appalachian stereotypes begin to develop and why did they develop?
    The Civil war first exposed northerners to the Appalachian culture where some stereotypes emerged but moreso during the early industrial era depicted a community that had to be lifted up somehow. The subsequent war on poverty shed some light on the people of the community and their isolation gave rise to many stereotypes that were enforced by many local fiction writers over the years.
  97. How did the Civil War impact the economy and culture of Appalachia?
    The culture was ripped apart by various groups that held different views on slavery, even families were affected. Although the issue of slavery did not emerge in Appalachia as the dominant controversy of the Civil War era, the war did have an impact in the mountain areas of the South. The relative absence of slavery in the mountains was the result of the geographic and economic conditions found there. Because of the mountain terrain, it was simply not profitable to develop commercial agriculture based upon a slave workforce, and what slavery did exist in Appalachia was concentrated in the larger valleys of Virginia and Tennessee. As the result of their Civil War experiences, a great many northerners came into contact with the southern mountains, and many were surprised by what they found. Great mineral and timber wealth was coupled with a romantic beauty, just at a time when untamed urban growth, foreign immigration, and technological developments were beginning to unalterably change northern urban society. Capitalists responded to the call of profits, but writers, missionary workers, and teachers accompanied the industrialists into the mountains, and their work there was in some ways as substantial and the effects as long lasting as those of their entrepreneurial counterparts.
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Regional Studies Test 1
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