Hormones & Gender

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  1. What are hormones?
    Powerful chemical substances manufactured by the endocrine gland
  2. List the most important sex hormones:
    Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
  3. What is testosterone?
    Masculinizing sex hormone - sexual behavior & muscle strength
  4. What does Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) do?
    Controls sperm production and stimulates the development of ovarian follicle.
  5. What does Luteinizing Hormone (LH) do?
    "The ovulating hormone" - Allows ovaries to release mature egg. Also controls testosterone production
  6. What does the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
    (GnRH) do?
    Regulates the pituitary’s secretion of gonad-stimulating hormones
  7. Name the sex hormones in males
    • Testosterone 
    • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone 
    • Luteinizing Hormone
    • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  8. What are the sex hormones in females?
    • Estrogen
    • Oxytocin
    • Progesterone 
    • Prolactin
  9. What does estrogen do?
    Brings about many of the changes of puberty. Influencing the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and sexual behavior
  10. What is the purpose of prolactin?
    Stimulates production of milk by the mammary glands
  11. Name the functions of oxytocin:
    • -Stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth
    • – Promotes ejection of milk from nipples
    • – Promotes affection
  12. Define aromatase
    An enzyme that chemically converts testosterone into estrogen
  13. Where is aromatase found?
    • Adrenal Glands
    • Fat (Adipose) Tissue
    • Brain
    • Testicles & Ovaries
  14. What glands produce testosterone in females?
    Adrenal Glands
  15. What do the sex chromosomes do in the prenatal stage?
    Transmit information to various organs on how to differentiate in the course of development
  16. Who passes the "x" chromosome?
  17. Who passes the "y" chromosome?
  18. When do males develop testis?
    7 weeks after conception
  19. When do females form ovaries?
    At about 13 to 14 weeks
  20. What is SRY?
    Sex determining region otherwise known as the "y" chromosome.
  21. In females, what do the Mullerian ducts turn into?
    Mullerian ducts turn into fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper part of the vagina
  22. In males, what do the Wolffian ducts turn into?
    Wolffian ducts, supported by testosterone, turn into the epididymis, vas deferens, and the ejaculatory duct
  23. What are homologous organs?
    Organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryonic tissue
  24. What are analogous organs?
    Organs in the male and female that have similar functions
  25. What are the 9 variables of gender?
    • 1. Chromosomal gender
    • 2. Gonadal gender
    • 3. Prenatal hormonal gender
    • 4. Prenatal and neonatal brain differentiation
    • 5. Internal organs
    • 6. External genital appearance
    • 7. Pubertal hormonal gender
    • 8. Assigned gender
    • 9. Gender identity
  26. What is puberty?
    The time during which there is a sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics, leading to reproductive capacity
  27. What is adolescence?
    A psychological transition from the behavior and attitudes of a child to the behavior, attitudes, and responsibilities of an adult
  28. Name the pubertal changes in females:
    • - Breast development
    • – Growth of pubic hair
    • – Increased body growth
  29. What is menarche?
    • First menstruation at about 12 to 13 years
    • of age
  30. Name the pubertal changes in males:
    • • Growth of testes and scrotal sac
    • • Growth of pubic hair
    • • Penis enlarges
    • • Growth of facial and auxiliary hair
    • • Erections increase in frequency
    • • Voice drops or changes
    • • Increased body growth
  31. When do females begin to experience puberty?
    8-12 years of age
  32. When do males begin to experience puberty?
    Begins from age 10-11
  33. What 8 variables are involved with gender?
    6 biological and 2 psychological
  34. What are intersex people?
    People who have characteristics of both genders
  35. What are testes?
    2 structures that generate immature sperm
  36. Epididymis
    A long, coiled tube that connects to a testicle and stores maturing sperm
  37. Define scrotum
    A pouch like sac that houses the testis and epididymis
  38. Define prostate
    A walnut sized gland that produces fluid that nourishes the sperm cells
  39. Define penis:
    The sexually sensitive organ used during intercourse that ejaculates semen
  40. What is semen?
    A secretion that contains sperm and fluids produced by the accessory glands
  41. What are the accessory sex glands?
    Prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands
  42. The seminal vesicles...
    produce most of the fluid found in semen.
  43. What do the bulbourethral glands do?
    They produce fluid that neutralizes any acidity found in the urethra as a result of urine and lubricates the urethra for the passage of sperm
  44. What is responsible for the pre-ejaculatory fluid?
    Bulbourethral glands
  45. What are the female internal reproductive structures?
    Fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina(birth canal)
  46. What does the vagina do?
    Accept that man's penis during intercourse and provides the birth canal
  47. What is the uterus?
    Otherwise known as the womb; where the baby develops inside the mother
  48. What are ovaries?
    Structures that produce an egg
  49. What are fallopian tubes?
    Passageway that allows egg to go to uterus. Fertilization occurs here.
  50. What is the cervix?
    Allows sperm to enter and fertilize an egg and also allows baby to leave the womb and enter vaginal canal
  51. Name the external female reproductive structures
    Labia majora, labia minora, prepuce, clitoris, vestibule, vestibular glands, and mons pubis
  52. What are the external female genital organs collectively called?
    The vulva
  53. Progesterone
    "For gestation" - Hormone responsible for the preperation of the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg and for the maintenance of pregnancy
  54. What is the ovarian follicle?
    Structure that includes an immature egg
Card Set
Hormones & Gender
The roles of hormones and external/internal sex organs.
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