Capturing Food & Digestion

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  1. Because animals are heterotrophs, how do they obtain energy?
    They obtain energy by eating other organisms
  2. Digestion
    Process of breaking down food into a soluble molecule small enough to be absorbed
  3. Phagocytosis
    Food particle is enclosed within a food vacuole
  4. What animal utilizes intracellular digestion and why?
    Utilized by sponges because they lack a mouth and gut
  5. Intracellular Digestion
    • Food enclosed in a vacuole
    • Enzymes are added to vacuole & digestion takes place.
  6. What does Extracellular Digestion require? (2)
    • A digestive tract
    • Organs that secrete digestive enzymes into the gut.
  7. 2 Types of digestive tracts
    • Incomplete gut- gastrovascular cavity
    • Complete gut- alimentary cavity
  8. What does the region of reception include?
    • Mouth parts
    • Mouth cavity-salivary glands & tongue
  9. How does a tongue use chemoreception?
    It's used to detect prey
  10. Pharynx
    Passage for air & food cross
  11. Epiglottis
    Tips down closing trachea
  12. What serves in conduction?
  13. What does the Crop serve for?
    Storage before digestion
  14. Peristalsis
    Contraction of esophogeal muscles move food down.
  15. 3 ways the stomach serves in early digestion
    • Stores
    • Churn
    • Digest
  16. Gizzard (2)
    • Derived from posterior part of stomach
    • Grinding
  17. Adaptations to increase surface area in the small intestine
    • Increased length
    • Coiling
    • Folding
  18. Villi (2)
    • Tissue Level
    • Epithelial tissue forms finger-like projections
  19. Microvilli (2)
    • Cellular Level
    • Cell membrane forms finger-like projections
  20. Gall Bladder
    Bile emulsifies fats & increases surface area available for fat digesting enzymes to act
  21. Gastric Bypass Surgery
    • Staples close off much of stomach
    • Reattached on other side of duodenum
  22. How do nutrients move from the lumen to epithelial cells?
    The nutrients must cross the cell membrane
  23. How do epithelial cells enter into the circulatory system?
    They diffuse into blood capillaries & enter the blood circulatory system
  24. How do epithelial cells enter the lymphatic system?
    Chemical changes occur inside the epithelial cells and then they diffuse into the lymphatic system.
  25. Large intestine is the sight of- (2)
    • Re absorption of H20 & salts
    • Considerable microbial activity
  26. Insectivores (2)
    • Short intestinal tract
    • No plant material
  27. Carnivores (2)
    • Large teeth for prey capture
    • High protein diet, shorter digestive tract
  28. Why can't Herbivores digest cellulose directly? What have they evolved?
    • They lack the enzyme cellulose
    • Have evolved cooperative relationships with microorganisms
  29. Herbivore digestive system types (3)
    • Large 4 chambered stomach w/ rumination
    • Large multichambered stomach w/out rumination
    • Enlarged cecum
  30. Cecum (2)
    • Fermentation chamber
    • Bacteria breaks down cellulose
  31. Omnivores (2)
    • Capture animal prey & eat plant material
    • Intermediate digestive system
Card Set
Capturing Food & Digestion
How animals capture their food, and digest.
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