Western Civ I (Week 3)

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  1. Archaic Rome (ca. 800 – ca. 500 BC)
    Rome before the Republic.
  2. Romulus and Remus
    • sons of Mars
    • Tossed in Tiber river
    • She-wolf rescued them (suckled them back to life)
    • Romulus killed Remus and became 1st ruler of Rome
  3. The Kings (625BC - 509BC)
    • aka Rex
    • approx 7 Kings
    • imperium - authority over judicial, military, and religous matters
    • Senate of elder advisors
    • the oldest living male, nearly unlimited authority over his family
    • Had clan names
  5. The Republic (ca. 500-27 BC)
    Rome's republican form of government
    • Latin "res publica", which means “commonwealth” or “public thing.”
    • Limits the authority of one man. Goverment shared equally amoung city aristocrats
  7. Offices in Republican Gov't
    • Usually two consuls with imperium
    • Sometimes dictators for up to 6 months
    • About 300 senators (life - long terms)
    • Rome's herditary aristocracy
    • Monopolized most of land at expense of poor
    • were the non-patricians.
    • Usually peasents and freemen
    • Tribunes represented Plebeians in gov't
    • 12 tablets codified with Roman law accessible to all
    • all "free" citizens were equal before the law
  11. Roman Expansion
    • expansionist and imperialist
    • "Iron Legions" army
    • Conquered all of Italy and the Greek east
    • Colonies (like city of Milan, made for defensive purposes)
    • Roads (transported Army)
  12. Greco-Roman culture.
    the merge of Italian and Greek cultures as Romans expanded into Greece
  13. Cicero
    • Conduit of Greek thought in Rome
    • Studied oratory and philosophy
    • Famous for orations and his role in republican politics
  14. The Punic Wars (264-146 BC)
    • Rome vs. Carthage
    • Carthaginian Empire had territories in North Africa, Spain and elsewhere
  15. The First Punic War (264-241 BC)
    • conflict in Sicily
    • Rome gained Sicily
    • Carthage no longer a superpower
  16. Second Punic War (218-201 BC)
    • Carthage expanded to Spain and war broke out
    • Carthage invaded Italy through the Alps first
    • HANNIBAL - Carthaginian leader on elephants
    • Carthage gained Northern Italy at first
    • Scipio Africanus then conquered Spain and No. Africa for Rome
    • One war occured later, but Rome also won
  17. Slave Revolts from 135 to 71 BC
    • Most significant was Slave War in Italy from 73 to 71
    • BC.
    • SPARTACUS lead 70,000 slaves against Roman brutality
    • Defeated 4 Roman Legions, however ultimately crushed
  18. JULIUS CAESAR (100-44 BC)
    • Responsible for conquest of Gual (modern-day France)
    • Craved Power and Senete wanted him removed from power
    • Ceasar invaded Italy and gained control of the gov't
    • "The die is cast!"
    • Granted more power, “dictator for life” in February 44 BC
    • 60 senators led by Brutus and Cassius stabbed Caesar to death "Beware the ides of March"
  19. Rome Republic twilight years
    • Civil war between the partisans of Caesar and Liberators
    • Caesar Supporters Mark Antony and Octavian defeted the liberators at Battle of Philippi (42 BC)
    • Octavian declared war against Cleopatra and Marc Antony (32 BC)
    • Octavian defeated them at the Battle of Actium
    • Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide
    • Roman Rebublic gone, Octavian master of the Roman world (Augustus Caesar)
  20. CLEOPATRA VII (r. 51-30 BC)
    • the final Hellenistic queen of Egypt.
    • lover of Julius Caesar and had child together
    • later was lover of Mark Antony as well
  21. Augustus Caesar (r. 29 BC – AD 14)
    • name means "revered"
    • aka Octavian
    • First roman emperor
    • Power were limited by laws, still needed to cooperate with Senate
    • Promoted morality, marriage, family
    • Exiled daugther for adultery, lovers were killed
    • "Roman Peace"
    • Period of prosperity, wealth, and culture
    • "golden age" of Latin Literature, poetry
  23. AENEID
    • Virgil's poetic work
    • describes the supposed origins of Rome after the Trojan prince Aeneas arrived there after
    • the Trojan War
  24. Art of Love
    • Ovid's poetic
    • described how one could seduce and also experience all forms of heterosexual experience.
    • Ovid was banished by Augustus
  25. Pont du Gard
    • Aqueduct that brought fresh water into the city
    • Has arches
  26. Freso
    • Romans' favorite method of painting
    • Garden Room, Villa Livia (Augustus's wife)
  27. Augustus died (AD 14)
    his stepson Tiberius became emperor 1st "Julio-Claudian" emperor
  28. The Colosseum
    • Was largest amphitheater (colud fit 50,000 spectators)
    • Hosted Gladiator shows as they fought to the death
  29. The Second Century
    • Roman Empire at its zenith
    • Great span of boarders
  30. MARCUS AURELIUS (emperor AD 161 - 180)
    • aka "enlightened emperor"
    • Wrote "The Meditations" about Stoicism
    • Peaceful, but had to deal with military conflicts
    • died at the Danubian front
  31. The Third-Century Anarchy and Diocletian
    • Rome in dire straits
    • 235 - 285 AD 50 year period of crisis
    • Emperors were assinated, usurpers rose to steal throne
    • Emperor Valerian captured by Persians
    • Enormous empire streatched far too thin
    • Seemed like Rome was on brink
  32. DIOCLETIAN (285 AD)
    • Ended period of crisis
    • Established "Tetrarchy" - empire governed by 4 emperors
    • Increased army with "barbarians"
    • Absolute monarch or lord
    • 20years stability and kept Rome continuing for almost 200 years
  33. Greco-Roman Religion
    • At first, Romans were ANIMISTIC, meaning they worshiped spirits.
    • Later adopted Greek anthropomorphic gods; Jupiter, Juno, and Neptune.
    • pontifex maximus (head of state clergy)
    • Vestal Virgins (priestesses of Vesta)
  34. Pantheon
    • building - dedeicated to "all of the gods"
    • Massive dome with Oculus "eye" at the top
  35. Mystery Religions
    • i.e. Cult of Isis
    • Centered on Egyptian Goddess
    • Popular amounst women
    • i.e. Mithraism
    • Centered on Mithras, the Persian god of light and truth.
    • Popular amoungst Roman soldiers
    • Baptized in blood of a bull
  36. Emperor Worship
    • Offer incense before statues of previous emperors
    • A testiment of their loyalty to Roman state
    • Became problem for future religions
  37. Second-Temple Judaism
    • First temple of Soloman destroyed by Babylonians
    • Persians later conquered and allowed Jews to reconstruct temple (536 BC - 1st Century AD)
  38. The Jews Encounter Hellenism
    • Antiochus Epiphanes - Greek Syrian ruler
    • Responsible for “Abomination of Desolation,” (Zeus erected in the second temple
    • Jews under lead of Judas Maccabeus launch THE MACCABEAN REVOLT (Jews win)
    • In 164 BC they rededicated temple and celebrate as Hanukkah
    • Menorah and Dreidel
  39. Roman Occupation of Palestine
    • Romans invaded Palestine and took over
    • Romans allowed Jews to practice their religion
    • Herod the Great renovated the second temple
  40. First-Century Jewish Religion
    • Numerous sects (Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and
    • Zealots, ect)
    • “apocalyptic”
    • MESSIAH (anointed one, kingly title) expected t
    • o be of House of David and deliver them from Roman rule
  41. JESUS OF NAZARETH (ca. 6 BC – AD 30)
    • 12 apostles
    • Gospels of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John, which can be dated from approximately AD 65 to 95
    • betrayed by Juda Iscarioat
    • Brought before Roman Govener Pontius Pilate and then crucified
    • Kingdom Movement continued on and became one of the most significant forces of all Western civilization
  42. The Fate of the Jews
    • Jewish War - Jews revolted against Romans in AD 66
    • Ended in 70 AD (Romans win and captured Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple)
    • Wailing Wall is all that remains of the second temple
    • Bar Kochba Revolt - Jews last stand 132 to 135 AD (Romans win again)
    • Jewish state ceased to exist
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Western Civ I (Week 3)
Western Civ I (Week 3)
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