Glands and Pigmentation

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  1. There are four types of chromatophores.



  2. What is different about birds and mammals?
    they do not contain chromatophores but instead have a type of cell called a melanocyte
  3. Both __ and __ have the same __ present in the __.
    chondrichtyes and osteichtyes


  4. Fish mostly contain the __ but a few __ and __ can also be present.
    chromatophore dermal melanophore


  5. Some fish can change color due to __.
    extraction and contraction of chromatophores
  6. Explain pigmentation in amphibians.
    Chromatophores are only found in the dermis

    contain dermal melanophores

    few iridophores and xantophores present

    some are also able to change skin color by changing chromatophore dispersion
  7. Explain pigmentation in reptiles.
    pigments are found in epidermis

    contain both dermal and epidermal melanophores (epidermal melanophores are most abundant)

    very fw iridiophores and xantophores may be present in the dermis
  8. Explain pigmentation in birds
    located at teh dermis and epidermis

    have melanocytes, which add color to feathers and keratinized cells

    also contain carotenoids and porphyris, which give color but are not chromatophores. These pigments are obtained by food or AA modificaitons

    These other pigmentations allow for different refraction angles causing non-iridescent and iridescent colors
  9. Explain pigmentation in mammals
    only contain melanocytes

    located in the epidermis

    melanin is carried into the stratum corneum and gives hair color

    skin color combination of the stratum corneum, the red underlying BV, and the melanocytes
  10. Basic function of glands
    help protect the integument and regulate cell and organ activity
  11. In all vertebrae except fish, most of the glands are __
    derived from the stratum germinativum and later travel into the dermis
  12. Fish glands are :

    1) location

    2) type

    3) type of type

    4) function

    5) special characteristic
    found in epidermis of both chondrichthyes and osteichthytes


    club, goblet, sacciform, and ___

    help secrete the mucous cuticle

    only a few osteichthyes contain granular (poison) glands
  13. Amphibaians

    1) type of gland

    2) location of gland

    3) function 

    4) special characteristic
    1) multicellular glands

    2) located in dermis but reach the surface via ducts that pierce the cornified layer

    3) glands help to secrete the surface

    4) during the larvae stage, only Leydig cells (immune function) are present; during the adult stage, mucous and poison (granular) glands are present
  14. Birds

    1) glands

    2) location

    3) function of the one gland

    4) function of the other gland
    • 1) few glands-- urophygial and salt glands
    • 2) located in dermis
    • 3) uropygial (oil): secretes lipid protein product that is collected ont eh sides of the beaks and smeared on the feathers;  the uropygial gland acts as a water repellant to help in aviation
    • 4) salt gland is located at head and it excretes excess salt
  15. mammals
    1) location
    2) types
    located in dermis

    types: sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine
  16. Reptiles

    1) hypothesis

    2) gland amount

    3) restriction
    1) glands not well understood but is hypothesized that they play a role in protection and mating

    2) fewer skin glands than in amphibians

    3) glands are restricted to certain areas of the body
Card Set
Glands and Pigmentation
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