EXP 4304 TEST 1

  1. Motivation (3 things)
    • process that accounts for
    • 1. DIRECTION
    • 2. INTENSITY
  2. Content theories
    focus on specific needs, values or motives

    WHY we do things
  3. Content theory examples:
    • Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    • McClellands Needs Theory
  4. McClellands Needs Theory
    behaviors some because of need for achievement (nAch), need for power (nPow), andor need for affiliation (nAff)
  5. Process Theories
    focus on underlying mechanisms of motivation

    WHY and HOW we do things
  6. Examples of Process Theories
    Goal Setting THeory

    Goal Orientation

    Pritchard Ashwood Model of Motivation
  7. Goal Setting Theory

    definition and components
    tension between where you are and where you want to be

    greater tension = greater effort

  8. How to make good goals (SMART model)
    • S - Specific
    • M - Measureable
    • A - Action-related
    • R - Realistic
    • T - Time bound
  9. Goal Orientation Theory - (3)

    three types of people:

    LGO (Learning Goal Oriented) - strive to gain as much knowledge as possible

    PPGO (Prove Performance Goal Oriented) - strive to prove greatness in situations they perform well in

    APGO (Avoid Performance Goal Oriented) - strive to avoid performance completely
  10. *** Pritchard-Ashwood (2008) Model of Motivation
    how we choose to allocate our energy to different actions to achieve the greatest satisfaction of our needs

    Action ↦ Result ↦ Evaluations ↦ Outcomes ↦ Needs Satisfaction
  11. Pritchard-Ashwood (2008) Model of Motivation Example : Testing Process

    Action - 
    Result - 
    Evaluation -
    Outcomes - 
    Needs Satisfaction -
    • Action = studying
    • Result = performing the examing
    • Evaluation = letter grade
    • Outcomes = gain knowledge 
    • Needs Satisfaction = need for knowledge fulfilled
  12. What are the 3 components of motivation?


  13. Components of Attention
    Attending/Receptor Orientation

    Selective Attention

    Perception or Meaning
  14. Classical Conditioning
    trained association that pairs previously unrelated stimuli

    ex. Pavolv's bell
  15. Operant Conditioning
    uses positive reinforcement techniques for positive behavior and punishment for negative behavior
  16. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
    the tendency to process info to be consistent with existing mental models, beliefs, attitudes, values, stereotypes, and behaviors
  17. Internal vs. External Locus of Control
    internal - you control your own destiny

    external - the environment controls your destiny
  18. Fundamental Attribution Theory
    suggests that people are inclined to look for reasonable explanations for their behavior, including autonomic responses
  19. Female Stages of Arousal
    • Excitement ↦ Plateau ↦ Orgasm ↦ Resolution
    • ↥↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↤↧

    multiple orgasms; no "refractory period"
  20. Male Stages of Arousal
    Excitement ↦ Plateau ↦ Orgasm ↦ Resolution
  21. Sternberg's Love Triangle
    Image Upload 1
  22. Prefrontal Cortex and Arousal

    "______" function of the brain involved in (3):

    Goal-Directed Behavior

    Inhibition of responses to external sources of stimulation and to wide range of emotions

    Anterior Cingulate cortex controls anxiety and arousal
  23. Trait Arousal
    characterizes the individual more or less independently of the situation
  24. High trait arousal =
    anxiety, negative emotionality

    focus on threats and perceived inability to deal with them
  25. State Arousal:

    definition and components
    arises out of the individual's interaction with the environment

    • components- 
    • sensory overload
    • cognitive dissonance
    • evaluation arousal
  26. State Arousal - Cognitive Dissonance

    3 component results
    encountering new information that is inconsistent to what we already know; often interferes with performance

    BIOLOGICAL - psychological discomfort

    LEARNED - individuals take remedial action

    COGNITIVE - people inclined to maintain existing beliefs
Card Set
EXP 4304 TEST 1
Chps. 1-5 Test no.1