What head term corresponds to 'cranial' in the rest of the body?
Away from the ground, surface below the proximal carpus and tarsus toward the head
Top of carpus/tarsus directed toward tail or ground
Part closer to a point of attachment, farther from
A part distal from its point of origin or near the surface
Closer to/farther from the longitudinal axis of the limb
Where is the axis of the limb in relation to the digits?
Between 3rd and 4th digits
Closer to/further from the outer surface of a structure
Sagittal, median plane
Unequal left and right parts/ equal parts
Divides the body into cranial and caudal parts or cuts a limb at right angle to its long axis
What are sections?
Cuts thru the planes of the body-sagittal, transverse
The skeleton can be divided into
Axial, appendicular, and visceral portions
3 parts of the axial skeleton
Skull, vertebral column, thorax
Vertebral column consists of
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal
What connects the thoracic girdle to the axial skeleton?
Muscle attachments (synsarcosis)
Thoracic limb regions
Shoulder:scapula, brachium:humerus, antebrachium:ulna and radius, carpus:carpal bones, manus:metacarpal, phalangeal and sesamoid bones, digits:proximal, middle, distal phalanges and sesamoid bones
Pelvic limb regions
Pelvic girdle:hip bones, sacrum and first few caudalvvertebrae, thigh:femur, stifle:femur and tibia and fibula, crus:tibia and fibula, hock:tarsal bones, pes:tarsal, metatarsal, phalangeal and sesamoid bones, digits
Parts of the long bone
Epiphyses and diaphysis
What joins the diaphysis to the mature bone
Name the fibrous covering of bone not covered by articular cartilage
What are the bones surrounding the medullary cavity?
Compact or cancellous bone
2 possible methods of osteogenesis
Intramembranous (flat bones) and endochondral (long bones)
In endochondral ossification, where are the centers of ossification located?
Diaphysis and epiphyses
Lengthening of long bones occurs in what area?
Outer growth plate (epiphyseal seal of plate)
2 different types of growth plates
Traction (olecranon, calcaneus), compression (most of the rest)
What is the palpable caudal end of the skull used as a landmark?
External occipital protuberance
What are the palpable lateral processes just caudal to the skull?
Wings of the atlas
What part of the hyoid apparatus crosses the ventral midline seen in lateral radiographs of the head?
What are the enlarged transverse processes that are IDed in radiographs of the cervical region?
Sled of 6th cervical vertebrae
What is usually the 11th thoracic vertebrae with the most vertically oriented spine used as a landmark for back radiographs?
What is the dorsal gap between the arches of contiguous vertebral arches used as access points to the vertebral canal for epidurals?
What projects laterally from the scapula and is palpable?
Spine of the scapula
What is the distal end of the spine of the scapula?
What is the ventral part of the acromion in the cat?
What is the origin of the biceps brachii m. on the scapula that can be fractured?
What is the palpable cranial most part of the shoulder region of the thoracic limb?
Greater tubercle or point of shoulder
What is the canal in the medial epicondyle of the cat humerus that carries the median n. and brachial vessels?
Supracondylar canal (foramen)
What is the bony landmark located in the 5th intercostal space in the standing animal?
Olecranon, point of the elbow
What is the proximal end of the notch (trochlear) of the ulna?
What is the distal end of the notch (trochlear) of the ulna?
Medial coronoid process
What small sesamoid bone may be located on the medial side of the carpus?
Sesamoid bone of the oblique carpal extensor (abductor pollicus longus) tendon
What is a landmark on the medial side of the manus and pes?
What bony process holds the horny claw?
What is the palpable part of the hip bone caudal to the flank?
Tuber coxae, point of the hip
What is the palpable caudal end of hip bone?
Ischial tuber, ischiatic tuberosity, pin bone
What is the palpable lateral structure of the proximal femur?
What is the palpable proximal end of the tibia?
What is the distal end of the fibula?
What is the small sesamoid bone that may be found on the lateral side if the stifle?
Sesamoid in the tendon of the origin of the popliteal muscle
Structural classification groups joints according to their
What are 3 types of uniting medium of joints in the structural classification?
Fibrous, cartilagenous, or synovial
A suture is what type of structural joint? Functional?
Is a gomphosis (implantation of teeth in the jaw) a true joint?
No because teeth arent part of the skeleton
Where are symphyseal joints found?
Generally on midline of body
What type of joint occurs between the bodies of most vertebrae?
Symphyseal - intervertebral disc
Define ginglymus or hinge
Flexion and extension (elbow and most joints of the limb)
Define plane joint
Gliding or sliding (carpal bones)
Ball and socket/spheroidal
Universal movement (shoulder and hip)
Define Pivot joint
Rotation around a longitudinal axis (atlantoaxial joint)
Define condylar joint
Flexion and extension/rotation (stifle)
Most of the joints of the thoracic and pelvic limb have what type of ligaments? Which joints don't?