Equine- Snotty Nose

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  1. What are 3 differentials for fetid purulent nasal d/c?
    dental-disease origin sinusitis, sinus tumor, fungal infection in sinus
  2. Differentials for non-fetid purulent nasal d/c? (3)
    primary sinusitis, secondary sinusitis due to nasomaxillary obstruction, guttural pouch empyema
  3. What are differentials for serosanguineous nasal d/c? (5)
    ethmoid hematoma, sinus trauma, sinus tumor (mixed with pus), guttural pouch mycosis, nasolacrimal infection
  4. Differentials for facial swelling? (4)
    sinus cysts, infection of rostral maxillary cheek teeth, trauma, neoplasia
  5. Differentials for impaired airflow? (4)
    sinus cyst, ethmoid hematoma,sinus tumor, ventral conchal empyema
  6. You can enter a horses sinus with a __(2)__; this allows you to... (3)
    steinmann pin/drill or trephine; lavage, visualize, biopsy
  7. What are indications for opening up a horse's sinus? (3)
    unknown cause of sinusitis, mass, non-responsive to lavage
  8. What are the sites of entry for trephination? (3)
    rostral maxillary sinus, caudal maxillary sinus, frontal sinus
  9. When trephining a horse's sinus, cut a flap _______ than the trephine hole so that the skin incision is healing on _________.
    larger; bone
  10. What are the limits for entry into the maxillary sinuses?
    dorsally: line from medial canthus to infraorbital foramen; ventrally: facial crest
  11. What are the boundaries for entry into the frontal sinus?
    medial canthus to incisive notch, line b/w medial canthi
  12. Which sinus should you avoid in a young horse and why?
    rostral maxillary sinus because their teeth roots are too high an you could damage them
  13. Secondary sinusitis is most commonly due to __________.
    tooth root abcesses
  14. Describe paranasal sinus cysts.
    smooth borders on radiographs, can lyse bone
  15. Resting endoscopy is only good for __________ lesions, such as... (3)
    static (upper airway); subepiglottic cysts, congenital palatal defects, and persistent epiglottic entrapment.
  16. Describe the airway function of horses.
    obligate nasal breathers (cannot breath from mouth)
  17. You hear a buzzing sound during inspiration and expiration, but there are no endoscopic abnormalities. What do you diagnose, and how do you treat it?
    alar fold collapse; mattress suture and exercise
  18. Horses with no active movement of ___________ on resting endoscopy will fail to achieve full _________ at exercise.
    left laryngeal cartilage; abduction
  19. What intrinsic laryngeal muscle narrows the rima glottidis to protect the airway (also has a role in vocalization)?
    cricoarytenoideus lateralis m.
  20. What intrinsic laryngeal m. abducts the vocal folds and widens the laryngeal aperture?
    cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
  21. Left-sided laryngeal collapse occurs most commonly in _________ due to....
    large horses (t-bred, draft horses); recurrent laryngeal neuropathy
  22. Iatrogenic perivascular injections of phenylbutazone can cause ____________.
    left-sided laryngeal collapse
  23. Right-sided laryngeal collapse is rare but is usually due to a __________.
    4th branchial arch defect
  24. Septic condition of the arytenoid cartilage, in which there is a draining tract/granuloma in the rima glottidis.
    arytenoid chondropathy/chondritis
  25. What are some treatments of laryngeal hemiplagia? (3)
    laryngeal prosthesis (CAD), neuromuscular pedicle graft, partial arytenoidectomy
  26. What is the most commonly diagnosed URT disorder in horses referred for poor performance?
    palate malfuntions
  27. The majority of horses with ______________ show no endoscopic abnormalities during a resting exam; you need high-speed treadmill exam or dynamic endoscope to diagnose.
    dynamic nasopharyngeal collapse
  28. What muscle tenses the rostral portion of the palate, depresses the soft palate towards the tongue, and contracts to aid in opening the gutteral pouch?
    tensor veli palatini
  29. With _________ muscle dysfunction/anesthesia, you get billowing of the rostral soft palate.
    tensor veli palatini
  30. You appreciate a gurgling noise during exercise, which exhibits a sudden onset and rapid fade. What is your top differential?
    dorsal displacement of the soft palate
  31. What are a few treatment options for dorsal displacement of the soft palate? (4)
    tie forward, staphylectomy, sternothyohyoidectomy, laser "spot welds" on soft palate
  32. On endoscopy, you see the epiglottis flattened against the surface of the caudal soft palate; there is a loud inspiratory noise at low intensity exercise (+/- at rest). What is your top differential?
    rostral soft palate instability
  33. You are presented with a standardbred who exhibits neck flexion when harnessed, which occurs at rest and goes away with exercise. What are you differentials? (3, 1 major)
    pharyngeal wall collapse, HSTE, poss nasal occlusion
  34. Disorder when the epiglottis is covered by aryepiglottic folds; there is noise during bot inspiration and expiration; commonly diagnosed at rest (rarely, only observed during exercise).
    epiglottic entrapment
  35. Epiglottic entrapment was correlated with ___________ in a study of racehorses.
    superior racing performance
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Equine- Snotty Nose
vetmed basic equine medicine course
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