Eco and Evo 2

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  1. how to evolution advance according to ernst mayr?
    by speciation, which is the production of new gene complexes capable of ecological shifts
  2. what is the keystone of evolution according to Mayr
  3. taxonomists
    science of defining groups of biological organisms on shared characteristics and giving names to those groups
  4. are species real?
    yes individuals cluster in morphospace corresponding to geno and phenotypic space.
  5. what can help us find ancestor
    morphology and molecular clock (rate of decay)
  6. what example in class showed organisms that were only distinguishable on the basis of karyotype
    agrodiaetus butterflies
  7. what is the natural category in the taxonomic hierarchy?
  8. hierarchy from species
    genus, family, order
  9. what did darwin think of species
    extension of the spectrum of variation seen within species (rhetorical necessity)
  10. what was the problem with Darwin's definition of species?
    there is usually a disconnect between variation within a species and variation among species
  11. species paradox
    darwin taught us to think of species as dynamic, changing entities, yet seeking to create an all embracing species concept, we place boxes around changing things
  12. what is dobzhansky's definition of species
    group of organisms barred from interbreeding with other similar groups by its physiological properties (sterility of hybrids or incompat of parents)
  13. mayr's definition of species
    species are reproductively isolated from other groups
  14. problems with BSC
    • not work with fossils
    • or asexual species
    • ring species 
    • varying degrees of reproductive isolation
  15. what is an example of ring species
    phylloscopus warblers
  16. alternative species concepts
    • cluster of organisms that is distinct from other lineages and within which there is a common ancestor (phylogenetic)
    • ecological (occupies the same zone)
  17. what is different about alternative species concept and BSC?
    alternative emphasize outcomes of history. BSC emphasizes process
  18. in practice what do we rely on for distinguishing species
  19. prezygotic barriers
    • ecological 
    • temporal
    • sexual/behavioral
    • mechanical
    • gametic incompatibility
  20. example of ecological reproductive isolation
    ladybugs (yasutomii and niponica)
  21. behavioral isolation ex
    green lacewings
  22. mechanical barrier ex
    • genital arch in males of drosophila
    • baculum of walrus requires mechanically fitting species
  23. postzygotic barriers?
    hybrid inviability and sterility
  24. biometrical characteristics
    techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics
  25. the new synthesis
    not all traits are expressed, expressed in discrete units, though wide varieties
  26. allopatric
    physical barrier
  27. peripatric
    specie moves to island
  28. parapatric
    pineapple and apple hence specie isolated based on food preference
  29. sympatric
    blue dino wants to mate with red dino
  30. pup fish in death valley
    example of allopatric
  31. what is an ecological niche
    all elements that allow organism to survive
  32. what is the principle of competitive exclusion by G.F. Gause
    two species occupying the same habitat can coexist only if they are not competing for the same resource
  33. vicariance
    physical barrier
  34. dispersal
    go to nearby island (birds and wind dispersed plants are better at it)
  35. stochastic
    freak events
  36. deteriministic
    according to dispersal abilities
  37. disharmony
    ecosystems incomplete (not many species), susceptive to freak events
  38. example of sympatric
    palm trees flower at different times as a result of volcano. even though they could interbred
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Eco and Evo 2
exam 1
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