Medical Terminology Chapter 4

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  1. bi-
    twice, double, two
  2. -cele
    hernia, tumor, swelling
  3. dys-
    bad, difficult, or painful
  4. fasci/o
    fascia, fibrous band
  5. fibr/o
    fibrous tissue, fiber
  6. -ia
    abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
  7. -ic
    pertaining to
  8. kines/o, kinesi/o
  9. my/o
  10. -plegia
    paralysis, stroke
  11. -rrhexis
  12. tax/o
    coordination, order
  13. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
  14. ton/o
    tone, stretching, tension
  15. tri-
  16. abduction
    Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.
  17. adduction
    Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body.
  18. adhesion
    A band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.
  19. ataxia
    The lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement.
  20. atonic
    Lacking normal muscle tone or strength.
  21. atrophy
    Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures caused by pathology or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time.
  22. bradykinesia
    Extreme slowness in movement.
  23. carpal tunnel syndrome
    Inflammation and swelling of the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel, which then create pressure on the median nerve.
  24. chronic fatigue syndrome
    A debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that is not improved by bed rest and may be made worse by physical or mental activity
  25. circumduction
    The circular movement at the far end of a limb.
  26. contracture
    The permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with non-elastic fibrous tissues.
  27. dorsiflexion
    Movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle and narrows the angle between the top of the foot and the front of the leg.
  28. dyskinesia
    Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement in which the movements appear purposeful but are not under voluntary control, as in tics or spasms.
  29. dystonia
    A condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement.
  30. electromyography
    A diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation.
  31. epicondylitis
    Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow.
  32. ergonomics
    The study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment.
  33. exercise physiologist
    A specialist who works under a physician's supervision to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness.
  34. fasciitis
    Inflammation of a fascia; "fascitis" is also an acceptable spelling.
  35. fibromyalgia syndrome
    A debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue; diffuse and/or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain; and a wide range of other symptoms.
  36. ganglion cyst
    A harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.
  37. heel spur
    A calcium deposit that is in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone and can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis.
  38. hemiparesis
    Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body.
  39. hemiplegia
    Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body.
  40. hernia
    The protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it.
  41. hyperkinesia
    Abnormally increased motor function or activity; also known as hyperactivity.
  42. hypotonia
    A condition of diminished tone of the skeletal muscles.
  43. impingement syndrome
    Inflammed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint.
  44. insertion
    The point where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon.
  45. intermittent claudication
    Pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest.
  46. muscular dystrophy
    A group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
  47. myasthenia gravis
    Achronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction (where the neuron activates muscles to contract) and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.
  48. myocele
    The herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it.
  49. myoclonus
    The sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles.
  50. myofascial release
    A specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia syndrome, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome.
  51. myolysis
    The degeneration of muscle tissue.
  52. myoparesis
    Weakness or slight muscular paralysis.
  53. myorrhaphy
    Surgical suturing of a muscle.
  54. neuromuscular
    Pertaining to the relationship between a nerve and muscle.
  55. nocturnal myoclonus
    Jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep.
  56. oblique
    Slanted or at an angle.
  57. paralysis
    The loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply.
  58. paraplegia
    Paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body.
  59. physiatrist
    A physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function.
  60. plantar fasciitis
    Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot, causing foot or heel pain when walking or running.
  61. polymyositis
    A muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body.
  62. pronation
    The act of rotating the arm or the leg so the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot is turned downward or backward.
  63. quadriplegia
    Paralysis of all four extremities.
  64. range of motion testing
    A diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength.
  65. sarcopenia
    The loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that come with aging.
  66. shin splint
    A painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone).
  67. singultus
    Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm; also known as hiccups.
  68. spasmodic torticollis
    A stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side; also known as wryneck.
  69. sphincter
    A ringlike muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.
  70. sprain
    An injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist, that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament.
  71. tenodesis
    The suturing of the end of a tendon to bone.
  72. tenosynovitis
    An inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon.
  73. tenolysis
    The release of a tendon from adhesions.
  74. tenorrhaphy
    Surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon.
  75. transverse
    In a crosswise fashion.
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Medical Terminology Chapter 4
medical terminology chapter 4
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