CT Simulated Exam Images 1

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    33. Number 1 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    B. left pulmonary artery
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    34. Which number on the figure corresponds to the superior vena cava?



    B. 4
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    35. The abnormal density located in the posterior portion of the left lung field on the figure has an average attenuation value of +5 Hounsfield units. This density most likely represents:



    C. pleural effusion

    • Pleural effusions are commonly seen in the posterior portion of the lung field on images obtained with the patient in a supine position on the CT table. Differentiation between pleural effusion and pleural thickening is made when ROI measurements reveal fluid with density readings at or slightly above zero. Pleural effusion may be caused by multiple pathologic processes, including infection, neoplasm, and CHF.
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    38. Number 2 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    B. left internal carotid artery
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    39. Number 5 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. right internal jugular vein
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    40. Number 1 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    A. epiglottis
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    47. Number 5 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. stomach
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    48. Which of the following most likely describes the patient position during the formation of the image in the figure?



    D. right lateral decubitus

    • The location of the liver on the inferior portion of the image indicates that this patient is in the right lateral decubitis position.
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    49. CT examinations of the abdomen are often performed in the position on the figure to demonstrate the relationship between the:



    C. duodenum and pancreatic head

    • The right lateral decubitis position is often used to differentiate the pancreatic head and the duodenum.
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    50. Number 3 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    A. right ureter
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    59. Which of the following corresponds to the low attenuation area indicated by Number 3 on the figure?



    B. renal pyramid

    • The renal pyramids are cone-shaped regions of the renal medulla. The wider bases of the renal pyramids border the renal cortex.
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    60. The data for this reformatted image of the abdomen was most likely acquired in which of the following renal enhancement phases?



    A. corticomedullary

    • Beginning 30-40 seconds after the initiation of contrast agent administration, the corticomedullary phase demonstrates optimal enhancement of the renal cortex with maximum differentiation of the cortex from the renal medulla.
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    61. Number 2 in the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. adrenal gland
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    62. Number 6 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    B. psoas muscle
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    66. Number 2 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. cochlea
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    67. Number 4 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. carotid canal
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    68. Which of the following display field of view (DFOV) values was most likely used to display the image?



    C. 9.6 cm

    • Targeted reconstructions should be performed bilaterally utilizing a small DFOV or a higher zoom factor to maximize resolution of the small bony components of the inner ear.
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    69. Number 3 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. vestibule
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    77. The pathologic process indicated by Number 3 on the figure most likely corresponds to:



    B. ground-glass opacity

    • Ground-glass opacities are hazy areas of increased attenuation in the lungs and are often associated with interstitial lung disease evaluated by HRCT.
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    78. Number 1 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. ascending aorta
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    79. This HRCT image of the chest was most likely acquired with a section width of:



    A. 1mm

    • HRCT acquisitions of the chest should be performed with thin sections, within the range of 1-2mm.
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    80. Number 2 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    A. anterior segment of left upper lobe bronchus
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    83. Number 7 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. pancreatic head
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    84. Number 2 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. superior mesenteric vein
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    85. Number 8 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. ascending colon
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    89. Number 1 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    C. frontal sinus
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    90. The section thickness that would demonstrate the greatest detail of the paranasal sinuses is:



    A. 3mm

    • The section thickness of a CT scan directly affects the detail and spatial resolution of the image. Narrow section widths result in greater detail for imaging of small anatomic parts such as the sinuses.
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    91. Which number on the figure corresponds to the zygomatic bone?



    A. 2
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    96. Number 4 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. cuboid
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    97. Which of the following best describes the type of image displayed in the figure?



    B. sagittal multiplanar reformation (MPR)
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    98. Number 6 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. navicular
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    99. Number 1 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    D. talus
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    102. Which number on the figure corresponds to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle?



    A. 5
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    103. Number 3 on the figure corresponds to which of the following?



    A. thalamus
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    104. Which number on the figure corresponds to the septum pellucidum?



    D. 4
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    128. Which of the following components of CT image quality are being evaluated in the figure?
    1. low-contrast detectability
    2. noise
    3. uniformity



    A. 2 and 3 only

    • Noise is most commonly measured by scanning a water filled phantom with a consistent set of technical factors. The image noise is equal to the standard deviation of pixel values within a region of interest (ROI) measurement of the image.  Uniformity may also be evaluated by positioning several ROI measurements at different locations along the center and periphery of the image. The CT values should not differ by more than 2 HU from one location to another.
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    129. The differences in Hounsfield value exhibited in the ROIs measured on this CT image of a water filled phantom are most likely due to the phenomenon referred to as:



    B. beam hardening

    • Beam hardening occurs as low-energy x-ray photons are absorbed while the beam passes through the patient. The average photon energy of the beam increases along the path and may result in a loss of system uniformity.
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    130. Which region of interest (ROI) on the figure demonstrates the greatest amount of image noise?



    A. 1

    • The image noise is equal to the standard deviation of pixel values within an ROI measurement of the image. ROI on number 1 on the figure demonstrates the highest value for standard deviation (SD=2.87).
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    152. The artifact present on the lateral borders of the image in the figure most likely represents which of the following?



    B. out-of-field artifact

    • The artifact present in the figure most likely represents an out-of-field artifact. This relatively large patient was incorrectly positioned, and a portion of the anatomy lies outside the Scanned FOV. This improperly centered anatomy interferes with the reference detectors, thus causing a streak artifact near the unscanned area.
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    153. The image in the figure was produced using the following parameters: large (full) SFOV; maximum DFOV (48cm); 200 mA, 120 kVp; soft tissue algorithm. Which of the following technical adjustments would serve to reduce the artifact present?



    A. centering the patient within the SFOV

    • The out-of-field artifact present in this image could be easily reduced by properly centering the patient within the scan field of view.
Author
sully79
ID
308000
Card Set
CT Simulated Exam Images 1
Description
CT Images Review
Updated