1. drug
    a chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease
  2. pharmacology
    the study of drugs and their interactions with the body
  3. assay
    a test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in a laboratory
  4. Schedule I drug
    high abuse potential; no accepted medical indications
  5. Schedule II drug
    high abuse potential; accepted medical indications
  6. Schedule III drug
    less abuse potential than I or II, accepted medical indications
  7. Schedule IV drug
    low abuse potential
  8. Schedule V drug
    low abuse potential
  9. bioequivalence
    relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemically equivalent drugs
  10. bioassay
    test to ascertain a drug's availability in a biological world
  11. Phase I of Human drug studies
    determine the pharmokinetics, toxicity, and safe dose in humans (tested on healthy individuals)
  12. Phase II of human drug testing
    determine the pharmokinetics, toxicity, and safe dose in humans (tested on indiviuals with the disease to be treated)
  13. Phase III of human drug testing
    use to refine therapeutic dose and to collect relevant data on side effects

    once Phase III is complete, the manufacturer files a New Drug Application with the FDA
  14. Phase IV of human drug testing
    postmarketing analysis during conditional approval
  15. Six Rights of med administration
    • right patient
    • right dose
    • right medication
    • right route
    • right time
    • right documentation
  16. dose packaging
    medications packages that contain a single dose for a single patient
  17. teratonic drug
    medication that may deform or kill the fetus
  18. free drug availability
    proportion of a drug available in the body to cause either desired or undesired effects
  19. pharmacokinetics
    • how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted
    • how drugs are transported into and out of the body
  20. pharmacodynamics
    how a drug interacts with the body to cause its effects
  21. active transport
    requires the use of energy to move a substance
  22. carrier-mediated diffusion/ facilitated transport
    process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane
  23. passive transport
    movement of a substance without the use of energy
  24. diffusion
    movement of a solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  25. osmosis
    movement of solvent in a solution from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
  26. filtration
    movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
  27. ionize
    to become electrically charged (polar)
  28. bioavailability
    amount of a drug that is still active after it reaches its target tissue
  29. blood-brain barrier
    tight junctions in the capillary endothelial cells in the central nervous system vasculature through which only non-protein bound, highly lipid soluble drugs can pass
  30. placental barrier
    biochemical barrier at the maternal/ fetal interfae that restricts certain molecules
  31. metabolism
    the body's breaking down of chemicals into different chemicals
  32. biotransformation
    metabolism of drugs
  33. prodrug (parent drug)
    medication that is not active when administered, but whose biotransformation converts it into active metabolites
  34. first-pass effect
    the liver's partial or complete inactivation of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation
  35. oxidation
    the loss of hydrogen atoms or the acceptance of an oxygen atom (increase positive charge/ lessens negative charge)
  36. hydrolysis
    the breakage of a chemical bond by adding water
  37. enteral route
    delivery of a medication through the GI tract
  38. parenteral route
    delivery of a medication outside of the GI tract
  39. receptor
    specialized protein that combines with a drug resulting in a biochemical effect
  40. affinity
    force of attraction between a drug and a receptor
  41. efficacy
    a drug's ability to cause the expected response
  42. second messenger
    a chemical that participates in complex cascading reactions that eventually cause a drug's desired effect
  43. down-regulation
    binding of a drug or homone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to decrease
  44. up-regulation
    binding of a drug or homone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptors to increase
  45. agonist
    drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
  46. antagonist
    drug that binds to a receptor that does not cause it to initiate the expected response
  47. agonist-antagonist (partial agonist)
Card Set
pharmacology definitions