Biology Chapter 2

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  1. Matter
    anything that takes up space and composed of elements
  2. Elements
    substance that can't be broken down
  3. Compound
    substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
  4. Atom
    smallest unit of matter that still retains property of a element
  5. Neutron
    no charge
  6. Proton
  7. Electron
  8. 1st shell max
  9. 2nd shell max
  10. 3rd shell max
  11. 4, 5, 6... max
  12. Atomic nucleus contains...
    protons and neutrons
  13. Neutron mass almost identical to..
    Proton mass (daltons)
  14. Energy
    capacity to cause change
  15. Potential energy
    energy matter has because of it location or structure
  16. Electron Shell
    electron's state of potential energy
  17. Valence Shell
    outermost shell and hold the valence electrons
  18. Elements with shells complete
    Inert or Noble gases
  19. Orbital
    3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time
  20. Atom's valance
    bonding capacity of an atoms
  21. Chemical bond
    2 or more atoms share/donate/accept electrons to form molecules and compounds
  22. Covalent Bond
    sharing of electrons
  23. Molecule
    two or more atoms held together by covalent bond
  24. Single Bond
    sharing of one pair of valence electrons
  25. Double bond
    sharing of two pairs of valence electrons
  26. Electronegativity
    • atoms attraction for the electron in a covalent bond
    • **the more electronegative an atom, the stronger it pulls shared electrons towards itself**
  27. Non-polar covalent bond
    atoms share electrons EQUALLY
  28. Polar covalent bond
    one is more electronegative (not shared equally)
  29. Ion
    charged atom
  30. cation
    positively charged ion
  31. anion
    negatively charged ion
  32. Ionic bond
    attraction between anion and cation forming Ionic compounds (salts)
  33. Hydrogen bond
    hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
  34. Chemical reactions
    making and breaking of chemical bonds
  35. reactants
    starting molecules of chemical reactions
  36. products
    final molecules of a chemical reaction
  37. chemical equilibrium
    when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
  38. Trace elements
    required by an organism
  39. 4 Elements in 96% of living matter
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
  40. Elements in remaining 4% of matter
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium
    • Sulfur
  41. Atomic Number
    # of proton
  42. Mass number
    sum of protons AND neutrons
  43. Atomic Mass
    approximately mass number (number off periodical table)
  44. Isotopes
    two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons
  45. Structural formula
  46. Molecular formula
  47. Lewis Dot structure
Card Set
Biology Chapter 2
Principals of Biology Chapter Two
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