Neurological diseases

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  1. when did AD appear in recorded evidence?
    3,000 years ago
  2. what may be the first recorded history of someone renown having AD?
    • Lucullus (117-58 BCE)
    • Plutarch wrote about him in 75 BCE
  3. who was AD named for?
    Alois Alzheimer who described in 1906
  4. how do people die from AD?
    they don't they die from complications
  5. how is AD's brain different?
    dramatic shrinkage of cortex (outer layer involved in memory, thinking, judgment and speech)
  6. sagittal plane
    vertical plane that divides body to left and right
  7. coronal plane
    divides body into front (ventral) and back (dorsal)
  8. differential diagnosis
    • differentiating between two or more conditions with similar signs
    • rule out disease without doing blood work
  9. where are high concentration of amyloid found?
    in amygdala and hippocampus
  10. neuritic plaque
    major constituent of B-amyloid
  11. neurofibrillary tangles
    hyperphosphorylated tau
  12. microscopy of AD shows
    fatty deposits in small blood vessels, dead and dying brain cells and protein amyloid in and around cells
  13. hippocampus
    short term memories converted to long term memories
  14. thalamus
    receives sensory and limbic information and sends to cerebral cortex
  15. hypothalamus
    secretes neurohormones, controls circadian rhythm
  16. limbic system
    controls emotions and instinctive behavior, includes hippocampus, amygdala and parts of cortex
  17. AD
    • brain disease that causes steady decline in memory and other brain functions
    • confusion, memory loss, changes in way our minds work
  18. when do dementia symptoms occur in AD?
    not early stage symptoms, symptoms that appear in middle and late stages
  19. AD accounts for how many % of all dementia symptoms?
  20. infarction
    tissue death caused by local lack of oxygen
  21. what are three stages of AD?
    • pre-clinical (prior to symptoms)
    • mild cognitive impairment due to AD
    • dementia due to AD
  22. unable to find the right words
  23. incidence
    rate at which the disease is appearing
  24. prevalence
    how many people are suffering in population
  25. apoE1
    causes sporadic, though getting the allele does not mean you will develop disease
  26. two important risk factors of AD
    genetics and aging
  27. occipital cortex
    motor functions, tasting, smell
  28. how small are plaques
    30-50 micro
  29. early mild
    • losing blackberry
    • forgetting to bring up dance classes (short term memory)
    • forgets the author to a paper (forgets familiar names and numbers)
  30. middle (2a)
    • restless at night (wandering)
    • stops running (neglect health)
    • needs notes for lectures (needs direction to function in familiar surroundings)
  31. 2b (middle)
    • lose ability to perform daily skills (finding the bathroom)
    • glued to the floor
    • lose ability to read or write (writing sloppily)
  32. severe
    • can't walk
    • discontinue talking
    • trouble swallowing (brain not getting signal)
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Neurological diseases
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