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A specific guideline or rule (ex. 5ppm)
Capital structures (ex. dams, mines, powerplants, etc)
What is a policy?
- "A statement of general intent and direction that sets out a governments major purpose in pursuing particular goals and some of the means used to achieve them"
- - here's what we would like to do
What is an act?
results from a policy, the legal document that implements the policy
Mapping of Values: Instrumental and Anthropocentric
- Environment is valued for the benefits it yields to humans.
- Benefits: value as a resource, recreation, value for future generations
Mapping of Values: Instrumental and Non-Anthropocentric
Resources are valued instrumentally by animals and plant for their values as food or source of solar energy, their value exists whether or not they are useful to humans
Mapping of Values: Intrinsic and Anthropocentric
Environments are valued for their own sake, but bc we can't know whether they are valueable independently of our knowledge of such value, humans assign them intrinsic value
Mapping of Values: Intrinsic and Non-anthropocentric
Environments are valued for their own sake, this value exists independently of human knowledge of such value, this value is discovered in nature and not assigned
instrumental/demand values, jobs over preservation
Intrinsic values, preservation over jobs
Economic growth good, don't like central planning, like technological innovation
Resource conservation or managerial, sustainable growth a practical option w/ certain rules
resource preservation, constraints needed on economic growth, like central planning
extreme preservation, deindustrialization, bioethics
new ecological paradigm
Normative policy analysis
- Prescriptive rather than descriptive
- more "what should be" instead of "what is"
Positive policy analysis
- understanding how policy process works and understand it as it is
- more why do we wend up where we are?
what you have to give up to get something, cost of the policy is the cost of the most viable alternative
thinks people should be able to do whatever they want with minimal gov't involvement
environmental non government organizations
adopt a policy where you can make at least one person better off and no one else worse off
- social objective is the simple sum of utilities across all individuals
- inequality aversion = 0
- social objective to maximize welfare level of the worst-off in society
- inequality aversion = infinity
- Your income relative to your peers can increase your aspirations
- ex. if your peer makes more than you do, you get mad and want more money even if you don't need it
in order, like a dictionary, or how medals go gold>silver>bronze
Problems with Rawlsian bc
- 1. Veil of ignorance
- 2. Risk Averse
- 3. Just reward
Mutual Advantage Theory
- "equate justice with a social contract or agreement that enhances the position of all participants"
- wants to fix prisoner's dilemmas, want everyone to help each other and cooperate
subject to market failure because they are externalities (external to the market)
Hayekian School of Thought
- Emphasis on economic markets rather than deliberation
- prices good bc they aggregate information and the tastes of numerous people
- sensible decision must be the product of a decentralized market bc it incorporates many minds
Examples of market-based instruments
carbon tax, offsets, environmental auctions, etc
Condorcet's Jury Theorem
- A theorem about the relative probability of a given group of individuals arriving at a correct decision
- The size of the group matters, more ppl you have the more likely they'll make the right decision as a group
exchange-traded markets created for the purpose of trading the outcome of events. The market prices can indicate what the crowd thinks the probability of the event is.
- Relationship between government, bureaucracy, and NGOs that results in the mutual benefit of all three
- - hard for others to have any say if they're not in the iron triangle
Networks of knowledge-based experts