Cellular Level

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  1. 4 major macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acid (RNA/DNA)
  2. What is a hierarchical organization?
    • Sequence of things that build of each other.
    • (tissue-organ-organism)
  3. Genetic Program
    All organisms have nucleic acid that provide info for protein synthesis
  4. Metabolism
    Living organisms get nutrients from the environment & use this to grow
  5. Ecology
    Organisms interacting with their environment
  6. What is the Cell?
    the basic unit of life
  7. 2 cell types
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic
  8. 3 Domains of Life
    • Archaea- prokaryotic
    • Bacteria- prokaryotic
    • Eukarya- eukaryotic
  9. 4 Kingdoms within Eukarya
    • Animalia 
    • Plantae
    • Fungi
    • Protista
  10. 3 Different levels of organization
    • Sponges- cellular grade organization
    • Cnidarians- tissue grade organization
    • "Other" Animals- organ system grade
  11. Eukaryotic Cells (3)
    • True Nucleus
    • DNA bound by a nuclear membrane
    • contain membranous organelles
  12. Homeostasis (3)
    • Maintain internal balance
    • Isolation- food/H2O in 
    • Exchange- waste out
  13. Plasma Membrane Function
    • Maintain cellular integrity
    • Selective Permeability
  14. What is selective permeability?
    • H2O allowed in plasma membrane
    • solutes not allowed in plasma membrane
  15. What is the plasma membrane composed of?
    • 2 layers of lipid molecules
    • Proteins partially/ wholly embedded
  16. What is the function of the proteins in the plasma membrane? (3)
    • Receptors
    • Recognition Sites
    • Transport Vehicles
  17. 3 mechanisms for movement of substances in & out of cells
    • Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
  18. Diffusion
    Movement of materials from high concentration to low concentration

  19. Facilitated Diffusion (2)
    • Membrane proteins create channels for materials to cross
    • No energy required
  20. Active Transport (2)
    • Transports against concentration gradients
    • Uses energy- ATP
  21. Endocytosis
    Cell membrane takes things in by forming a vesicle
  22. Exocytosis
    Transport molecules outside of cell with fusion of a vesicle
  23. Why is mitosis important?
    For production of cells/organisms
  24. Which cells don't undergo mitosis?
    Germ Cells (sperm/egg)
  25. 3 Steps of Mitosis
    • 1) Replication- DNA duplicated
    • 2) Mitosis- DNA move to opposite side of parent cell
    • 3) Cytokineses- parent cell splits
  26. Why is mitosis good? (3)
    • Growth
    • Repair
    • Reproduction
  27. Why is mitosis bad?
    Cancer- mitosis doesn't stop
  28. How does cancer occur?
    Genes involved in "starting"/"stopping" mitosis are muted
  29. 3 Causes of Cancer
    • Random error in DNA replication
    • Inherited
    • Outside Sources
  30. Mitosis (3)
    • Asexual
    • No exchange of genetic material
    • 2 identical diploid daughter cells
  31. Meiosis (3)
    • Sexual 
    • Reproduction of genetic material 
    • 4 non-identical Haploid daughter cells
  32. Human Karyotype (3)
    • Most animals are diploid
    • Chromosomes occur in pairs
    • Members of a pair are homologous
  33. What is meiosis?
    Genetic material replicates once and cells divide in two rounds
Author
ID
307505
Card Set
Cellular Level
Description
Description of life, cells, and cellular division (mitosis/meiosis)
Updated
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