Introduction to Sociology - Chapter One

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  1. Proletariat
    workers; those who have no means of production of their own and so are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live
  2. Bourgeoise
    owners; the class of modern capitalists who own the means of production and employ wage laborers
  3. Alienation
    the sense of dissatisfaction the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else, according to Karl Marx
  4. False Consciousness
    a denial of the truth on the part of the oppressed when they fail to recognize the interests of the ruling class in their ideology
  5. Class Conciousness
    The recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppressed , leading to revolutionary action
  6. Dialectical Model
    Karl Marx's model of historical change, whereby two extreme positions come into conflict and create some new third thing between them
  7. Thesis
    the existing social arrangements in a dialectal model
  8. Antithesis
    The opposition to the existing arrangements in a dialectical model
  9. Synthesis
    the new social system created out of the conflict between thesis and antithesis in a dialectical model
  10. Critical Theory
    a contemporary form of conflict theory that criticizes many different systems and ideologies of domination and oppression
  11. Praxis
    Practical action that is taken on the basis of intellectual or theoretical understanding
  12. Mechanical Solidarity
    term developed by Emile Durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in premodern, agrarian societies, in which shared traditions and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion
  13. organic Solidarity
    term developed by Emile Durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in modern societies, based on difference, interdependence and individual rights.
  14. Anomie
    "normlessness" term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change
  15. Solidarity
    The degree of integration or unity within a particular society; the extent to which individuals feel connected to other member of their group
  16. Sacred
    The holy, divine, or supernatural
  17. Profane
    The ordinary, mundane, or everyday
  18. Collective Effervescence
    an intense energy in shared events where people feel swept up in something larger than themselves
  19. Collective Conscience
    The shared morals and beliefs that are common to a group and which foster social solidarity
  20. Empirical
    Based on scientific experimentation or observation
  21. Structure
    a social institution that is relatively stable over time and that meets the needs of society by performing functions necessary to maintain social order and stability
  22. Dysfunction
    a disturbance to or undesirable consequence of some aspect of the social system
  23. Manifest Functions
    the obvious, intended functions of a social structure for the social system
  24. Latent Functions
    the less obvious, perhaps unintended functions of a social structure
  25. Conflict Theory
    a paradigm that sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change, and emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change.
  26. Disenchantment
    The rationalization of modern society
  27. Iron cage
    Max Weber's pessimistic description of modern life, in which we are caught in bureaucratic structures that control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization
  28. Bureaucracies
    secondary groups designed to perform tasks, efficiently, characterized by specification, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication
  29. Symbolic interactionalism
    A paradigm that sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction
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Introduction to Sociology - Chapter One
Introduction to Sociology
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