Community Chapters 1-4

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  1. community
    a group or collection of individuals interacting in social units and sharing common interests, characteristics, values, and goals.
  2. geopolitical communities
    formed by natural and/or man-made boundaries 

    • Examples: 
    • cities
    • counties
    • states 
    • nations
    • school districts
    • census tracts
    • zip codes
    • neighborhoods
  3. phenomomenological communites
    relational, interactive groups. The place or setting is more abstract and people share a group perspective or identity based on culture, values, history, interests, and goals

    • Examples: 
    • schools
    • colleges
    • churches
    • social networks
  4. community of solution
    type of phenomenonological community

    collection of people who form a group specifically to address a common need or consern
  5. Community vs. Population vs. Aggregate
    • Community: residents of a small town
    • Population: all elders in a rural region
    • Aggregate: pregnant teens within a school district
  6. goals of Healthy People 2020
    • Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury and premature death
    • Achieve health equicty, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
    • Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
    • Promote quality of life, healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages
  7. Healthy People 2020 leading health indicator topics
    • Access to health services
    • Clinical preventive services
    • Environmental quality
    • Injury and Violence
    • Maternal-infant and child health 
    • Mental health 
    • Nutrition physical activity and obesity
    • Oral health 
    • Reproductive and sexual health 
    • Social determinants
    • Substance abuse
    • tobacco
  8. community health
    organized health efforts at the community level through both governmental and private efforts.

    Rec cross
  9. Public health
    focus on prevention and promotion of population health at the federal, state, and local levels. Efforts at the federal and state level concentrate on providing support and advisory servicse to public health structures at the local leavel
  10. Core public health functions
    • Assessment
    • Policy development
    • Assurance
  11. Primary prevention
    Prevention of problems before they occur

  12. Secondary prevention
    Early detection and interventions

    Screening for stds
  13. Tertiary prevention
    correction and prevention of deterioration of disease state

    teaching to administer insulin at home
  14. public health is _____________ focused
  15. community based nursing
    application of the nursing process in caring for individuals familes and groups where they live, work or go to school or as they move through the health care system
  16. community health primary client?
    the community
  17. Community based nursing primary client?
    the individual and the family
  18. population focued nursing
    concentrates on specific groups of people and focuses on health promotion and disease prevention, regardless of geographic location
  19. Population focused nursing practice does what?
    • focuses on the entire population
    • Is based on assessment of the populations health status
    • Considers the broad determinants of health
    • Emphasizes all levels of prevention
    • Intervenes with communities, systems, individuals, and families
  20. Surveillance
    describes and monitors health events through ongoing and sysematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of heatlh data for the purpose of planning, implementing, and evaluating public health interventions
  21. Disease and other health event investigation
    systematically gathers and analyzes data regarding threats to the health of populations, ascertains the source of the threat, identifies cases and others at risk, and determines control measures
  22. Outreach
    locates populations of interest or poulations at risk and provides info about the nature of the concern, what can be done about it, and how services can be obtained
  23. case finding
    locates individuals and families with identified risk factors and connects them with resources
  24. Case management
    optimizes self-care capabilities of individuals and fmailies and the capacity of systems and communities to coordinate and provide services
  25. coalition builidng
    promotes and develops alliances among organizations or constituencies for a common purpose
  26. Social marketing
    utilizes commercial marketing principles and technologies for programs designed to influence the knowledge, attitueds, values, beliefs, behaviors and practices of the population interest
  27. Hunter gatherer stage
    before 10,000 BC

    • small aggregates
    • disease couldnt spread easily
  28. Setttled Village stage
    10,000-6,000 BC

    • formed small villigaes
    • concentration of people caused new health problems such as TB
    • domesticated plants may have reduced the range of consumable nutrients
    • waterborne diseases due to cross contamination of water supply
  29. Preindustrial cities stage
    6000-1600 BC

    • large urban centers
    • increased food and waste prodcuts
    • rodent infestation lead to plague
    • small pox, mumps, measles, flue
  30. Industrial cities stage
    increase in TB, pneumonia, and bronchitis, diptheria, smallpx, typhoid, typhus, measles, malaria, yellow fever

    travel spreads
  31. Romans noticed ________ threats
  32. Endemic
    diseases that are always present in a population
  33. Epidemic
    diseases that are not always present but flare up on occation
  34. Pandemic
    the existence of disease in a large proportion of the population, a global epidemic
  35. Romans provided what public health services
    • a water board to maintain the aqueducts
    • a supervisor of the public baths
    • street cleaners
    • supervision of the sale of food
  36. who enforced hygienic codes in middle ages?
  37. Elizabethan Poor Laws
    • Famililal/relative responsibility 
    • Parish responsible for maintaing the poor not supported by their family or church
  38. who described microscopic organisms?
  39. Health visiting
    health pamplets
  40. Edwin Chadwick
    • examined death rates by occupation and class in England
    • Cholera
    • Quantitative data
  41. Lemuel Shattuck
    • child health reform 
    • well visits
  42. Jenner
  43. Lister
    surgical wound care
  44. Pasture
    immuniations, germs
  45. Snow
    transmission of cholera in public water source
  46. Koch
    causitive agent for cholera and TB
  47. Community outcry for social reforms....
    forced governments to take action
  48. What report outlined shortcomings in med schools?
    Flexner report
  49. First school nurse
    linda rogers
  50. Changing perspectives of Mortality in 20th century
    • change from infectious to chronic
    • vaccines, antibiotics, programs
    • holistic
    • sanitation and nutrition
    • multicasual, not unicasual, view of disease
    • social concerns 
    • insurance
    • increased cost
    • increased technology
    • discrimination and racism
    • femanist movement
    • bioterrorism preparedness
    • disasters
Card Set
Community Chapters 1-4
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