Anatomy and Physiology

  1. small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed_________________.
    lymph nodes
  2. The pancreas is not a lymphatic structure?
  3. The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called_____________.
    Peyer's patches
  4. Both lymph and blood flow are heavily dependant on ______________.
    Skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
  5. The thymus is most active during ______________.
  6. Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
    Thoracic duct
  7. What effect does age have on size of the thymus?
    The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age
  8. The lymphatic capillaries are___________.
    more permeable than blood capillaries
  9. Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are releases by _____________.
    Plasma cells
  10. Lymph leaves a node via _________________.
    efferent lymphatic vessels
  11. Which cells become immunocompotent due to thymic hormones?
  12. When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ______________.
    Severe localized edema distal to the blockage
  13. Lymph transport depends on the movement of of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles?
  14. T cells are the only form of lymphocytes found in lymphoid tissue?
  15. Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________________.
  16. The thymus is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
  17. Peyer's pathces are found in the _______________.
    ileum of the small intestine
  18. Lymph capillaries are absent in all but which of the following?

    C) digestive organs
  19. What is bubo?
    an infected lymph node
  20. The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:
    directly fight antigens
  21. Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ___________.
    lower extremities
  22. Functions of the spleen do not include_____________.
    forming crypts that trap bacteria
  23. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood?
  24. Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except_____________.

    D) islets of Langerhans
  25. Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?
    Smoth muscle contraction
  26. The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the __________________.
    Lingual tonsils
  27. Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

    C) red blood cells
  28. A sentinal node is _________.
    the first node to recieve lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
  29. Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

    C) A and C
  30. Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

    C) transporting respiratory gases
  31. Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

    D) produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
  32. The bodies water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

    C) sodium ions
  33. The term hypotonic hydration refers to _____________.
    a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extrordinary amounts of water
  34. Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by __________________.
    tissue edema
  35. Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extra-cellular fluid?

    C) aldosterone
  36. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________________.
    reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention
  37. Respiratory acidosis can occur when ________________.
    a persnos breathing is shallow due to obstruction
  38. Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

    C) the lungs and the kidneys
  39. Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?

    D) anabolism of proteins
  40. The fluid link between the external and internal enviroment is ________________.
  41. Newborn infants have a relatively higher ___________ content in their ECF than do adults.
  42. Although sodium is mainly found in the extracellular fluid, most __________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
  43. Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

    A) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
  44. problems with fluid, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their _____________.
    inefficient kidneys
  45. The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________________.
    Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma
  46. The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ___________ buffer system.
  47. A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates______________.
    Metabolic alkalosis
  48. The movement of fluids between cellular compartments ___________.
    Is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
  49. What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and sodium ion and water retention?
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  50. Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood?

    A) diet
  51. Which of the following is not a chamical buffer system?

    C) nucleic acid
  52. Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the following except____________.

    C) glucose
  53. Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts?
  54. Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conservation in the kidneys?

    B) antidiuretic hormone
  55. The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of _____________.
    The control of respiratory ventilation
  56. Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?

    A) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
  57. The regulation of sodium ______________.
    is linked to blood pressure
  58. Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion?
  59. Blood analysis indicates low pH, and patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

    C) metabolic acidosis
  60. A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
    metabolic alkalosis
  61. One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ___________.
    a rise in plasma osmolality
  62. Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt affect her physiology?
    There will be a temporary increase in in blood volume
  63. The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls is ______________.
    hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood
  64. Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?

    D) amount of body fat
  65. The regulation of potassium balance ___________.
    involves aldosterone-induced secretion of potassium
  66. Cells on the dorsal surface of the two-layered embryonic disc migrate to form a raised groove known as the ____________.
    primitive streak
  67. The result of polyspermy in humans is____________.
    a nonfunctional zygote
  68. It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after _______________.
    they undergo capacitation
  69. Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

    D) oxytocin
  70. Estrogen and progesterone maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?

    A) corpus luteum
  71. The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of a contribution from mother and fetus. which portion is from the fetus?
  72. Which of the following is not a germ layer?

    C) epiderm
  73. The formation of endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at _______________.
  74. Which hormone maintains the viability of the corpus luteum?
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  75. Which of the following is a highly unlikely method of producing a child?

    D) ectopic implantation
  76. Implantation involves _______________.
    embedding of the blastocyst in the uterine wall
  77. The umbilical arteris carry ______________.
    waste products to the placenta
  78. The correct sequence o preembryonic structures is _______________.
    zygote, morula, blastocyst
  79. Temperature is not assessed as part of the apgar score?
  80. Hormones concerned with events of lactation include ___________.
  81. Onset of labor may be a result of all of the following factors except _____________.

    D) aspirin and similar drugs
  82. Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic enviroment?
  83. Shortly after implantation ____________.
    the trophoblast forms two distinct layers
  84. The dorsal surface cells of the inner cell mass form ______________.
    the primitive streak
  85. Muscle tissue is formed by the ______________.
  86. Neural tissue is formed by the _________________.
  87. The trophoblast is mostly responsible for forming the ________________.
    placental tissue
  88. At which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?
  89. Inhibin is not produced by the placenta?
  90. During which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?
    Expulsion stage
  91. Aspirin is not considered a teratogen?
  92. Development events during weeks 9-12 include ______________.
    sex readily detected from genitals
  93. Derivatives of the ectoderm include ___________.
    epithelium of the pineal and pituitary glands
  94. Milk ejection or letdown reflex is stimulated by this pregnancy associated hormone
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology Lab Final Chapters 20, 26, and 28