child anemia

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  1. Anemia
    • most common hematologic disorder of childhood
    • RBC and or Hgb depletion
  2. when anemia develops slowly the child
    is able to adapt.
  3. s/sx of anemia
    • fatigue
    • bruising (clotting factors)
    • pale
    • muscle weakness
    • flat growth chart
  4. treat anemia
    • transfusions after hemorrhage
    • nutritional interventions for deficiencies
  5. iron deficiency anemia
    • most prevalent due to inadequate dietary iron. 
    • prevent: iron fortified for infants. NO COW MILK and iron supplements for premies
  6. sickle cell anemia
    • Autosomal recessive disorder (aa)
    • defect in RBC. sickled
    • Production does not equal destruction
    • vasoocclusion > ischemia > hypoxia > tissue and organ damage
  7. splenic sequestration
    • acute exacerbations of sickle cell crisis
    • blood pools in the spleen > splenectomy > decreased immunity
    • profound anemia, hypovolemia, shock
  8. sickle cell crisis
    • anything that increases body's need for O2 or alters the transport of O2
    • trauma, infection, stress, dehydration, and hypothermia
  9. vasoocclusive thombotic
    • most common sickle cell crisis
    • occlusion >ischemia >infarction
    • fever, PAIN, tissue engorgement
  10. Prevention and treatment of sickle cell's success depends on
    • pt and family education.
    • recognize s/sx of crisis, help children adjust, and manage the pain
  11. aplastic anemia
    • bone marrow failure where RBC, WBC, platelets are depressed.
    • definitive diagnosis: bone marrow is red > yellow fatty marrow.
    • tx: immunosuppression therapy and bone marrow transplant
  12. RH incompatibility
    mom - baby + so she receives RhoGam so antibodies don't attack baby #2
  13. hemophilia
    • clotting disorder
    • Hemophilia a: decrease factor 8. more common
    • hemophilia b: Christmas disease factor 9
    • Labs: low levels of factor 8,9, and prolonged PTT
  14. hemophilia effects
    • males. X linked
    • females are carriers
  15. primary tx for hemophilia
    • replace missing clotting factors
    • prevent bleeding and decrease risk of injuries for children with disease.
  16. blood transfusion therapy
    • monitor VS q 15min
    • infuse over 4 hours max
    • type and screen: match blood type
    • type and cross: agglutination (clotting)
  17. transfusion reactions
    hemolytic, fever (pre medicate), hypothermia (warm underarm), allergies, air emboli, and hyperkalemia
  18. delayed transfusion reactions
    • transmission of infection
    • delayed hemolytic reaction: destruction of RBC
  19. apheresis
    removal of blood > separation of blood into its components
  20. thalassemia
    • Beta chain most commonly affected
    • defect in the RBC > weak RBC > shortened RBC life
    • both patents must be carriers (Aa) to have baby with disease
  21. Thalassemia major
    • cooley anemia (aa)
    • 1:4 chance if both parents are carriers
    • severe anemia, need transfusions to survive
  22. 4 types of deformed beta thalassemia
    • minor: asymptomatic
    • trait: mild microcytic anemia
    • intermediate: moderate/severe anemia and splenomegaly
    • major: transfusions needed
  23. s/sx of thalassemia in children
    • pallor
    • failure to thrive
    • large spleen and liver
    • severe anemia (hgb:under 6)
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child anemia
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