A&P1 - Test 2

  1. Name the deep fatty layer
  2. Name the two distinct regions of the integumentary system
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  3. Name functions of the skin
    • Protection - Cushions, insulates, waterproof, chemicals, heat, cold, bacteria, UV
    • Synthesizes vitamin D
    • Regulates body heat
    • Prevents unnecessary water loss
    • Sensory reception (nerve endings)
  4. Name the tissue type of the epidermis
    Keratinized stratified squamous (floor tiles) epithelium
  5. Name the four types of cells of Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • Keratinocytes – deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous protein)
    • Melanocytes - make dark skin pigment melanin
    • Merkel cells – associated with sensory nerve endings
    • Langerhans cells – macrophage-like dendritic cells
  6. Name the four basic types of tissue
    • Epithelium (Epidermis)
    • Connective tissue (Dermis)
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nervous tissue
  7. Name the strong, durable connective tissue (your hide)
  8. Name the fiber types of the Dermis
    • collagen
    • elastic
    • reticular
  9. Name the two layers of the dermis
    • Papillary
    • Reticular
  10. What type of tissue is in the papillary layer of the dermis?
    areolar connective tissue
  11. What type of tissue is the reticular layer of the dermis?
    Network of collagen and reticular fibers
  12. tissue that lines blood vessels and air sacs of the lungs
    permits exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gasses
    simple squamous epithelial tissue
  13. outer layer of skin, mouth, and vagina
    protects against abrasion, drying out, and infection
    stratified squamous epithelial tissue
  14. lines kidney tubules and glands
    secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules
    simple cuboidal epithelial tissue
  15. lines ducts of sweat glands
    secretes water and ions
    stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue
  16. lines most digestive organs - stomach and intestines
    absorbs nutrients, produces mucus
    simple columnar epithelial tissue
  17. lines respiratory tract and some tubes of reproductive tract
    involved with celia and goblet cells/attached at basement membrane
    pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue
  18. has several layers and can be stretched in response to tension
    found in the lining of the urinary system
    transitional epithelial tissue
  19. secrete products onto a free surface through a duct
    exocrine glands
  20. ductless glands that secrete products into the blood
  21. flattened cells (tiles)
  22. several layers of epithelium
    stratified epithelium
  23. single layers of epithelium
    simple epithelium
  24. name the layers of the epidermis
    Image Upload 1
  25. Name the 3 cartilage types
    • hyaline
    • fibrocartilage
    • elastic cartilage
  26. Image Upload 2
    areolar connective tissue
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    adipose tissue
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    pseudostratified ciliated columnar
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    Non-keratinized stratified squamous
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    transitional epithelium
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    simple columnar
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    simple cuboidal epithelium
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    simple squamous epithelium
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    dense regular connective tissue
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    compact bone
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    elastic connective tissue
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    hyaline cartilage
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    dense irregular connective tissue
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    reticular tissue
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    elastic cartilage
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    spongy bone
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  44. Image Upload 20
    smooth muscle
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    nervous tissue
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    skeletal muscle
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    cardiac muscle
  48. name the 3 types of LOOSE connective tissue
    • areolar
    • reticular
    • adipose
  49. Name the 3 types of DENSE connective tissue
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • elastic
  50. Name the three pigments that make up our skin color
    • melanin
    • carotene
    • hemoglobin
  51. Melanin in granules passes from melanocytes (same number in all races) to keratinocytes in
    stratum basale
  52. arrector pili is made up of what type of muscle
    smooth muscle
  53. name the functions of hair
    • Warmth – less in man than other mammals
    • Sense light touch of the skin
    • Protection - scalp
  54. name the 3 types of sweat glands
    • Eccrine
    • Apocrine
    • Modified apocrine glands
  55. most common and numerous sweat gland
  56. sweat glands in axillary, anal, and genital areas only
  57. sweat gland that produces ear wax and milk
    modified apocrine gland
  58. bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
    Axial skeleton
  59. bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
    Appendicular skeleton
  60. function of bones
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • mineral storage
    • blood cell formation
  61. Name the line that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis on long bones
    epiphyseal line (growth plate)
  62. Name the ends of the long bones
  63. name the shaft of the long bones
  64. spongy bone is contained in what part of the long bones?
  65. yellow marrow is contained in what part of the long bones?
  66. red marrow is located where?
    • infants - medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
    • adults - diploë (crevices) of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus
  67. weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen in compact bone
  68. central channel containing blood vessels and nerves of compact bone
    Haversian or central canal
  69. channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal of compact bone
    Volkmann's canals
  70. mature bone cells
  71. small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
  72. hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
  73. A bone fracture where bone ends retain their normal position
    non-displaced fracture
  74. A bone fracture where bone ends are out of normal alignment
    displaced fracture
  75. A bone fracture where bone is broken all the way through
  76. A bone fracture where bone is not broken all the way through
  77. A bone fracture where the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone
  78. A bone fracture where the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
  79. A bone fracture where bone ends penetrate the skin
  80. A bone fracture where bone ends do not penetrate the skin
    simple (closed)
  81. Image Upload 24
    comminuted fracture
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    compression fracture
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    spiral fracture
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    epiphyseal fracture
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    depressed fracture
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    greenstick fracture
  87. name the 4 stages of healing a fractured bone
    • Hematoma formation
    • Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
    • Bony callus formation
    • Bone remodeling
  88. Group of diseases in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit
  89. Image Upload 30
    Squamous suture
  90. Name the 3 major regions of the axial skeleton
    • Skull
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
  91. The axial skeleton consists of how many bones?
  92. Image Upload 31
    Coronal suture
  93. Image Upload 32
    Lambdoid suture
  94. How many facial bones?
  95. The only freely movable joint in skull?
    Temporomandibular joint
  96. Image Upload 33
    • 1 = frontal sinus
    • 2 = ethmoid air cells (sinus)
    • 3 = sphenoidal sinus
    • 4 = maxillary sinus
  97. Name the freely movable bone that is the movable base for the tongue and the site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech
    Hyoid bone
  98. Image Upload 34
    Hyoid bone
  99. The vertebral column consists of how many bones?
  100. How many of each set of vertebrae?
    • cervical = 7
    • thoracic = 12
    • lumbar = 5
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  101. Image Upload 35
  102. Image Upload 36
  103. Image Upload 37
  104. Ligaments that connect from neck to sacrum
    Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
  105. Ligaments that connects adjacent vertebrae
    Ligamentum flavum
  106. Ligaments that connect each vertebra to those above and below
    Short ligaments
  107. Image Upload 38
    cervical vertebrae
  108. Image Upload 39
    thoracic vertebra
  109. Image Upload 40
    lumbar vertebrae
  110. The sternum is composed of 3 bones, name them
    • Manubrium
    • Sternal body
    • Xiphoid process
  111. Image Upload 41
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
  112. Name the 3 anatomical landmarks of the sternum
    • Jugular notch
    • Sternal notch
    • Xiphisternal joint
  113. How many pair of ribs?
  114. Rib pair 1 - 7
    True ribs
  115. Image Upload 42
    True ribs
  116. Rib pairs 8 - 12
    False ribs
  117. Image Upload 43
    False ribs
  118. Rib pair 11 - 12
    Floating ribs
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    Floating ribs
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    sternal end of clavicle
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    acromial end of clavicle
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    head of rib
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    neck of rib
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    Angle of rib
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    costal groove of rib
  126. Name the 4 fontanelles
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • mastoid
    • sphenoidal
  127. What 3 bones form the coxal bone?
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  128. What 3 bones form the bony pelvis?
    • Coxal bones
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  129. The site where two or more bones meet
  130. What are the function of joints?
    • Hold skeleton together
    • Give skeleton mobility
  131. Name the 3 classification of joints
    • synarthroses
    • amphiarthroses
    • diarthroses
  132. immovable joints, such as the pubic arch
  133. slightly movable joints
  134. freely movable joints
  135. Name the 3 structural classification of joints
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  136. Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue with no joint cavity and mostly immovable?
    fibrous joints
  137. Bones united by cartilage
    cartilaginous joints
  138. Name the two types cartilaginous joints
    • Synchondroses (hyaline cartilage)
    • Symphyses (fibrocartilage - pubic symphysis)
  139. Muscles attached to immovable bone is called?
  140. Muscles attached to movable bone is called?
  141. Name the 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  142. Name 4 important functions of muscles
    • movement of bones or fluids
    • maintaining posture
    • stabilizing joints
    • heat generation
  143. Each muscle is served by ?
    • one artery
    • one nerve
    • one or more veins
  144. The outside layer of entire muscle?
    Epimysium (Epi = out)
  145. The wrapping layer of a fascicle?
    Perimysium (Peri = around)
  146. The layer between individual muscle fibers?
    Endomysium (Endo = within)
  147. On the smallest scale of a contraction of muscle tissue?
  148. Many sarcomere's make one
  149. A muscle where the epimysium is fused to periosteum of bone of perichondrium of cartilage is what type of attachment?
  150. A muscle where the connective tissue wrappings extend beyond muscle as rope-like tendon is what type of attachment?
  151. thin muscle filaments are what type?
  152. thick muscle filaments are what type?
  153. The muscle cycle when an energized myosin head attaches to an actin myofilament?
    Cross bridge formation
  154. What two things are needed for the myosin head to cock and be ready for the muscle cycle?
    ATP and Calcium
  155. A muscle contraction with no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed load - this is the energy put in before moving something
    isometric contraction
  156. A muscle contraction when the muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds load
    Isotonic contraction
  157. The term when muscles contract, fatigue, then recruit others to contract then fatigue, and the cycle continues or until complete fatigue
  158. Glycolysis that happens in cytoplasm and does not require O2?
  159. Glycolysis that happens in mitochondria and requires O2?
  160. A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses aerobic pathways
    oxidative fibers
  161. A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses anaerobic glycolysis
    Glycolytic fibers
  162. Name the 3 muscle fiber types
    • Slow oxidative fibers
    • Fast oxidative fibers
    • Fast glycolytic fibers
Card Set
A&P1 - Test 2
Test 2