Med Physio Chapter 1

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  1. What are the fluid body compartments?
    Intracellular and extracellular
  2. How much of TBW is IFC?
  3. How much TWB id ECF?
  4. What separates the ICF and ECF?
    a cell membrane
  5. How is EFC divided?
    Plasma and interstitial fluid
  6. What is plasma?
    The fluid that circulates in the blood vessels
  7. What is interstitial fluid?
    Fluid that bathes the cells
  8. Which of interstitial fluid and plasma is larger?
    Interstitial fluid
  9. What separates plasma and interstitial fluid?
    Capillary wall
  10. What is principle of macroscopic electroneutrality?
    each compartment must have the same concentration of cations/anions
  11. What is the major cation for ECF?
  12. What is the major cation for ICF?
    K+ and Mg2+
  13. Which is more acidic of IFC and EFC?
  14. What are transporter mechanisms? Most common?
    • transport Na+ fro IFC to EFC and sim transports K+ from EFC to IFC
    • Na+-K+ pump
  15. What do transporter mech require?
  16. What are the 4 physiological functions of IFC and EFC?
    • 1. RMP of nerve/muscle depends on diff in concentration of K+ 
    • 2. Upstroke of AP depends on diff in Na+
    • 3. Excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells depends on diff in Ca+ conc across CM and memb of sarcoplasmic reticulum  
    • 4. Abs of essential nutrients depends on transmembrane Na+ conc gradient
  17. What is Gibbs-Donnan equil?
    plasma proteins neg charges -> redistrib of cations/anions across cap wall
  18. What is the Gibbs-Donna ratio?
    the small concentration diff for permeant ion
  19. What are the 2 main components of the cell membrane?
    lipids and proteins
  20. What is the water soluble lipid part?
    hydrophilic glycerol backbone
  21. What is the water insoluble lipid part?
    hydrophobic fatty acid tail
  22. What forms the lipid bilayer in the phospholipid compartment of the cell?
    oil-water interface
  23. What are the parts of the protein compartments of the cell?
    • integral membrane proteins
    • peripheral membrane proteins
  24. What are integral membrane proteins?
    embedded and anchored by hydrophobic interactions
  25. What are the peripheral membrane proteins?
    loosely attached by electrostatic interactions 
  26. Transmembrane proteins are in contact with what? Apart of which proteins membrane?
    • both IFC and EFC by spanning the lipid bilayer
    • integral 
  27. Downhill transport occur? Requires what?
    • By diffusion (simple or facilitated)
    • no energy
  28. Uphill transport occurs? Requires what?
    • By active transport (primary or secondary)
    • requires energy
  29. Of 1o and 2o which requires direct and indirect metabolic energy?
    • 1o direct input of metabolic energy
    • 2o indirect input of metabolic energy
  30. Which type of diffusion is not protein carrier mediated?
    simple diffusion
  31. What all are carrier-mediated transport?
    facilitated diffusion, 1o active transport and 2o active transport
  32. Carrier-mediated transport share which features?
    saturation, sterospecificity, and competition
  33. What is saturation?
    amt of binding sites
  34. What happens at low and high concentration levels?
    • low- ^binding sites/rate of trans
    • high- ∨binding sites/rate of trans
  35. What is competition in transport across membranes?
    may rec/bind/transport chemically related solutes
  36. What factors influences flux/flow rate?
    conc of gradient, partition coeff, diff coeff, thickness of membrane, surface area
  37. 2 consq of simple diff?
    • -potential diff=alter net diff
    • -diff of a charged solute down con gradient can generate diff across membrane
  38. Facilitated diff moves how? Uses what?
    • down gradient 
    • -GLUT-4 transporter moves D-glucose into skeletal/adipose cells
  39. 1o transport moves how? Requires what?
    • uphill
    • -ATP
  40. 3 types of pumps
    • Na+-K+ ATPase -> transport cyc
    • Ca+ATPase -> PMCA, SERCA 
    • H-K+ATPase
  41. 2o active trasport
    • indirect use of ATP
    • -contratransport (symport) 
    • -countertransport (antiport)
  42. Contransport (symport)
    • -2o AT solutes are transported in SAME direction 
    • -things move IN THE CELL
  43. Countertransport (antiport)
    • 2o AT solutes move in the OPPOSITE direction 
    • -NA moves INTO cell
  44. Osmolarity
    • parts/soln
    • conc of active particles
  45. Osmolality
    parts/kg of H2O
  46. In muscle cell what goes in/out?
    • 3Na+ in 
    • Ca+ out 

    ATP (2K+ in/3Na+ out)
  47. Osmotic pressure depends on what?
    • -conc of osmotically active particles 
    • -whether solute can cross memb
  48. Ion channels are
    • -voltage-gated 
    • -2nd messenger-gated 
    • -ligand-gated
  49. Voltage-gated channels uses what?
    • activation vs inactivation
    • open and close with trigger
  50. 2nd messenger gated channels
    • cyclic AMP or IP3
    • Δ inside membrane
  51. Ligand-gated channels
    wait for the right hormone (ligand) NOT an ion
  52. What does magnitude depend on?
    size of conc gradient (driving force)
  53. Nernst equation
    • used to calculate eq potential 
    • eq converts C1C2 into a difference as voltage
  54. ENa
    What are these numbers?
    • ENa +65
    • ECa +120
    • EK -85
    • ECl -90
    • What is the cells condition INSIDE
  55. What is the driving force?
    • diff between actual MP and calculated EP
    • happens only when cells reach EQUILLIBRIUM
  56. If uncharged
    the concentration is the difference
  57. If charged
    the concentration is electrical potential difference
  58. What is the net driving force?
    • cation will enter cell 
    • anion will leave cell
  59. Ionic current
    current flow is made because of the ion
  60. What conditions for ionic current movement?
    • DF on the ion 
    • membrane has conductance (OPEN channels)
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Med Physio Chapter 1
Chapter 1
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