Cell Bio Review

  1. What is LUCA?
    Last Universal Common Ancestor
  2. Where did all life originate from?
  3. What are the 6 elements that all biological molecules are built?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfure
  4. What is CHONPS?
    The 6 elements that are used to build all biological molecules.

    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfur
  5. What are the molecules of life?
    • Amino Acids
    • Nucleotides
    • Sugars
    • Fatty Acids
  6. Proteins are made of what type of molecules?
    Amino Acids
  7. Nucleic acids are made of what type of molecule?
  8. What are the two nucleic acids?
    DNA and RNA
  9. How many nucleotides are there and what are they?

    • DNA:
    • A (Adenine)
    • G (Guanine)
    • C (Cytosine)
    • T (Thymine)

    • RNA:
    • A (Adenine)
    • G (Guanine)
    • C (Cytosine)
    • U (Uracil)
  10. What is the sugar of DNA?
  11. What is the sugar of RNA?
  12. What enzyme creates DNA?
    DNA Polymerase
  13. What enzyme creates RNA?
    RNA Polymerase
  14. Triglycerides and phospholipids are made of what type of molecules?
    Fatty acids
  15. Polysaccharides are made of what type of molecule?
  16. What are the macromolecules of life?
    • Nucleic acids
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Polysaccharides
  17. What is the universal process for joining monomers to make polymers (macromolecules).
    Dehydration Synthesis
  18. What is the universal process for breaking bonds between monomers to break down polymers?
  19. What are the main purposes for cell membranes?
    • They separate cell chemicals.
    • Control materials entering and exiting the cell (Selective permeability).
    • Receive signals (Response to environment).
  20. What is the information storage molecule in all cells?
  21. What is DNA used to make?
    RNA and proteins.
  22. What is the process in which DNA is turned into work in a cell?
    • Transcription turns DNA into mRNA.
    • Translation turns mRNA into a protein.
    • Proteins do work in cells.
  23. What is the start codon?
    Methionine (AUG)
  24. What is the stop codon?
  25. Where are proteins made in all cells and how?

    mRNA is decoded using tRNA
  26. What is ATP?
    Adenosine triphosphate

    RNA Nucleotide
  27. Origin of Life Summary:
    What do you need to build cells?
    • Fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, sugars - abiotic formation.
    • Genetic material and a way to copy it (enzymatic activity)
    • Membrane - Contains/separates the cell contents from the environment.
    • Cell division
  28. Prion
    Mutant form of protein that attaches to a healthy protein and turns it into a prion.
Card Set
Cell Bio Review
Cell Bio Review