1. What disease has a corkscrew x-ray?
    Esophageal spasm
  2. What disease has an apple core x-ray?
  3. What disease has a stacked coin x-ray?
  4. What disease has a thumbprint x-ray?
    Toxic megacolon
  5. What disease has an abrupt cutoff x-ray?
  6. What disease has a barium clumping x-ray?
    Celiac sprue
  7. What disease has a bird's beak x-ray?
  8. What disease has a string sign x-ray?
    Pyloric stenosis
  9. What diseases have solid dysphagia?
    Schatzki's rings, stricture, cancer
  10. What diseases have solid and liquid 
    Esophageal spasm, scleroderma, achalasia
  11. What is Barrett's Esophagus?
    Metaplasia, inc AdenoCA risk
  12. What are Esophageal Varices?
    Vomit blood everywhere, portal HTN
  13. What is Mallory-Weiss?
    Tear LES mucosa, chronic vomiters
  14. What is Boerhaave's?
    Tear all layers of esophagus, left-sided pneumo /pain/ effusion
  15. What is Achalasia?
    Lost LES Auerbach's, bird's beak, Chaga's, choke on solids
  16. What is Hirschsprung's?
    Lost rectum Auerbach's, no meconium passage
  17. What is a Zenker's diverticulum?
    Cough undigested food from above UES, halitosis
  18. What is a Traction diverticulum?
    Eat big bolus => gets stuck above LES
  19. What is Plummer-Vinson syndrome?
    Esophageal webs, spoon nails, Fe-deficiency anemia
  20. What are Schatzki rings?
    Esophageal webs in lower esophagus
  21. What is a TE fistula?
    Choke w / each feeding
  22. What is an Esophageal atresia w TE 
    Vomit w 1st feeding, huge gastric bubble
  23. What is Duodenal atresia?
    Bilious vomiting w 1" feed, double bubble, Down's
  24. What is Pyloric stenosis?
    Projectile vomiting (3-4 wk old), RUQ olive mass
  25. How does Choanal atresia present?
    Turns blue with feeding
  26. How is the Tetrology of Fallot 
    presentation Turns blue with Crying
  27. What makes Scleroderma unique?
    dec LES pressure
  28. What makes Esophageal spasms unique?
    inc Peristalsis
  29. What makes Achalasia unique?
    dec Peristalsis and inc LES pressure
  30. What disease has a RUQ olive mass?
    Pyloric stenosis
  31. What disease has a RLQ sausage mass?
  32. What is a Bezoar?
    Mass of hair or vegetables => antrum obstruction
  33. What is Gastritis type A?
    Upper GI bleed, anti-parietal cell Ab
  34. What is Gastritis type B?
    Upper GI bleed, spicy foods, H. pylori
  35. What is a Duodenal ulcer?
    Too much acid pain after meal/ at night, type O blood, H. pylori, pain relieved by eating
  36. What is a Gastric ulcer?
    Broken mucus layer: pain during meal, NSAIDs, typeA blood
  37. What is a Sliding hiatal hernia?
    Fundus slides from esophageal hiatus to thorax =>sucks acid into thorax
  38. What is a Rolling hiatal hernia?
    Fundus sticks through hole in diaphragm, strangulates bowel "rolls through a bole"
  39. What is Menetrier's disease?
    Protein-losing, thick stomach rugal folds
  40. What defines Constipation?
    < 3 BM per week
  41. What defines Diarrhea?
    >200g per day
  42. What is Osmotic diarrhea?
  43. What is Secretory diarrhea?
    Laxative use
  44. What is Inflammatory diarrhea?
    Blood, pus
  45. What is Celiac sprue?
    Jejunum, wheat allergy, villous atrophy, anti-gliadal Ab
  46. What is Tropical sprue?
    Ileum celiac sprue
  47. What is Mesenteric ischemia?
    Pain out of proportion to exam
  48. What bugs cause bloody diarrhea?
    • "CASES"
    • Campylobacter
    • Amoeba (E. histolytica)
    • Shigella
    • E. coli
    • Salmonella
  49. What is the difference b/w 1° Biliary
    Cirrhosis(PBC) and 1° Sclerosing Cholangitis(PSC)?
    • 1° Biliary 1° Biliary Cirrhosis: anti-mitochondrial Ab, bile ductules destroyed, xanthelasma
    • 1° Sclerosing Cholangitis: p-ANCA Ab, bile duct inflammation, beading, onion skinning, associated w/ uc
  50. What is Ascending Cholangitis?
    Common duct stone gets infected
  51. What are the signs of alcoholic cirrhosis?
    Spider angioma, palmar erythema, Dupuytren's contractions, gynecomastia
  52. What is Hepatorenal Syndrome?
    Pts w liver disease build up liver toxins that cause renal failure
  53. What is Cholangitis?
    Inflammation of bile duct => Charcot's triad, Reynold's pentad
  54. What is Cholecystitis?
    Inflammation of gall bladder => Murphy's sign
  55. What is Cholelithiasis?
    Formation of gallstones => RUQ colic
  56. What is Choledocholithiasis?
    Gallstone obstructs bile duct
  57. What is Cholestasis?
    Obstruction of bile duct => pruritis, inc alkaline phosphatase, jaundice
  58. What is Conjugated bilirubin?
    water soluble "direct"
  59. What is Unconjugated bilirubin?
    Fat soluble "indirect"
  60. What is the most common type of 
    Cholesterol (can't sec on x-ray)
  61. What type of gallstones can be seen on x-ray?
  62. What is a Xanthoma?
    Cholesterol buildup (elbow or Achilles)
  63. What is a Xanthelasma?
    Triglyceride buildup (under eye)
  64. What does high cholesterol cause?
  65. What do high triglycerides cause?
  66. What is Type 1 Hyperlipidemia?
    Bad Liver Lipoprotein lipase (chylomicron)
  67. What is Type 2a Hyperlipidemia?
    Bad LDL or B-100 receptors: trapped in ER (LDL only)
  68. What is Type 2b Hyperlipidemia?
    Less LDL/VLDL receptors (LDL/VLDL)
  69. What is Type 3 Hyperlipidemia?
    Bad Apo E (IDL/VLDL)
  70. What is Type 4 Hyperlipidemia?
    Bad Adipose LL (VLDL only)
  71. What is Type 5 Hyperlipidemia?
    Bad C2 (VLDL/CM) b / c C2 stimulates LL
  72. What is Crigler-Najjar?
    Unconjugated bilirubin, usually in infants
  73. What is Gilbert's syndrome?
    Glucuronyl transferase is saturated => stress unconjugugated bilirubin
  74. What is Rotor's?
    Bad bilirubin storage => conjugated bilirubin
  75. What is Dubin-Johnson?
    Bad bilirubin excretion => black liver
  76. What is Cullen's sign?
    Bleed around umbilicus => hemorrhagic pancreatitis
  77. What is Turner's sign?
    Bleed into flank => hemorrhagic pancreatitis
  78. What tests are used for following 
    • • Amylase - sensitive, breaks down carbs
    • • Lipase - specific, breaks down TG s
  79. What does Ranson's criteria tell you?
    Poor prognosis for pancreatitis pts
  80. What is Ranson's criteria at presentation?
    • "WAGLA"
    • WBC: >16K/f.i-L (infection)
    • Age: >55 (usually multiple illnesses)
    • Glucose: >200 mg/ dL (islet cells are fried)
    • LDH: >350 IO/L (cell death)
    • AST: >250 IU/L (cell death)
  81. What is Ranson's criteria at 48hr?
    • "BuCH was a SOB"
    • BUN: inc >5mg/dL (dec renal blood flow)
    • Ca: <8 mg/ dL (saponification)
    • Hct: drops > 10% (bleed into pancreas)
    • Sequester > 6 L fl w. d => "3rd spacing
    • p02: <60mm Hg (fluid/protein leak -7
    • ARDS)
    • Base deficit >4mEq/L (diarrhea =>pancreatic enzyn"les are dead)
  82. What is Carcinoid syndrome?
    Diarrhea, flushing, wheezing
  83. What produces Currant Jelly sputum?
  84. What produces Currant Jelly stool?
  85. What is Gardener's syndrome?
    Familial polyposis w / bone tumors
  86. What is Turcot's syndrome?
    Familial polyposis w / brain tumors
  87. What is Familial polyposis?
    100% risk of colon cancer, APC defect=> annual colonoscopy at 5 y/o
  88. What is Peutz-Jegher syndrome?
    Hyperpigmented mucosa => dark gums/vagina
  89. What is Crohn's disease?
    IBD w / cobblestones, melena, creeping fat, fistulas
  90. What is Ulcerative colitis?
    IBD w pseudopolyps, hematochezia, lead pipe colon,toxic megacolon
  91. What is Intussusception?
    Currant jelly stool, stacked coin enema, sx come and go
  92. How does Diverticulosis present?
  93. How does Diverticulitis present?
  94. How does Spastic Colon present?
    Intermittent severe cramps
  95. How does IBS present?
    Alternating diarrhea/ constipation
  96. How do External Hemorrhoids present?
  97. How do Internal Hemorrhoids present?
    No pain
  98. What is Pseudomembranous Colitis?
    Overgrowth of C. difficile due to normal flora being killed off, usually by Clindamycin use
  99. What is Whipple's disease?
    T. whippleii destroy GI tract, then spread causing malabsorption, arthralgia
  100. What color is an upper GI bleed?
  101. What color is a lower GI bleed?
  102. What adds color to stool?
  103. What is the default color of stool?
  104. What is the default color of urine?
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