1. genetic drift
    changes in allele frequencies due to random sampling effects between generations

    increases variation among populations
  2. List the three effects that random genetic drift has on genetic variation within and between populations.
    • Species cannot stay the same forever
    • with in small populations, RGD leads to inbreeding
    • RGD opposes othr evolutionary forces
  3. speciation
    the process by which one species splits into two or more species
  4. biological species concept
    species as a population whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable fertile offspring, but do not produce viable fertile offspring with member of other such groups
  5. Pre-zygotic
    • habitat isolation- do not encounter each other
    • temporal isolation different time of day
    • behavioral- different rituals

    prevent mating from occurring
  6. allopatry
    • different country
    • formation of new species in populations that are geogrpahically isolated from one another
  7. sympatry
    • same county
    • formation of new species in populations that lin=ve in the same geographic area
  8. heterochrony
    an evolutionary change in the rate of timing of devlopment events.
  9. directional selection
    fixation of genetic differences in isolated populatoins, that produce barriers to gene flow
  10. disruptive selection
    fixation of genetic differences in contiguous populations, that porduce barriers to gene flow
  11. randome genetic drift
    chance fixation of genetic difference in isolated popultions, that porduce barriers to gene flow
  12. adaptive radiation
    a process that produces a cluster of species occupying a series of similar habitats, al evolving from a recent ancestor
  13. paedomorphosis
    the retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors
  14. karyotype
    a display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
  15. genome
    the genetic material of organism or virus; the complete complement or an organism's or virus's genes along with its nocoding nucleic acid sequences
  16. genomics
    the study of whole sets of genes and their interactions
  17. systematics
    a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
  18. phylogeny
    the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
  19. cladistics
    an approach to systematics inw hich organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent
Card Set
biology second part