NASM EXAM Chapter 15 Glossary

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    Often a good resistance-training method for new clients. Fairly self-explanatory and often less intimidating than dumbbells.  Offer those new to exercise a safer and effective option to free weights. 

    Machines tend to keep the individual in a fixed plane of motion, which limits excessive ranges of motion that may result in unnecessary musculoskeletal stress.  May also be the choice for those that lack stability or have other functional limitations, such as the elderly.
    • Free weights such as dumbbells and barbells can be used by a variety of populations to meet
    • fitness, wellness, and sports performance goals.  Free weights allow individuals to perform exercises in all planes of motion(sagittal, frontal, transverse) with various degrees of amplitude and ranges of motion consistent with those experienced in daily life and sport.
    Cable machines offer a variety of fitness and sports performance benefits because they allow similar freedom of movement as free weights, yet most exercises do not require a spotter. 

    Can be adapted to offer resistance for all body parts and are effective for developing stability, muscular endurance, hypertrophy, strength, and power.
    Elastic resistance training is an inexpensive alternative to training with resistance.  Various forms of elastic resistance training can be used to help improve proprioceptive demands, muscular endurance and joint stabilization. 

    May not be ideal for improving maximal strength, but it has been shown to be very beneficial in helping to improve muscular strength and endurance for fitness and rehabilitative purposes.
    Weighted balls that come in an assortment of weights and sizes, made with a variety of materials.  One of the oldest means of resistance training dating back to the Greek and Egyptians nearly 3,000 years ago. 

    For hundreds of years have been considered one of the "Four Horsemen of Fitness"  next to the Indian club, the dumbbell and the wand. 

    Can be thrown, caught, and used to provide resistance for a variety of movements, in a variety of planes of motion, and at a variety of velocities.
    A flat-bottomed cast iron ball with a handle.  Used in the Russian military for conditioning and strength. 

    Ranges from very low weight(4kg), over 8 Pounds, to competition style weight(64kg) more than 140 pounds, and higher weights exist.

    Differs from a dumbbell, barbell or medicine ball in that the center of mass is away from the handle, which may require more strength and coordination, as well as increased recruitment from stabilizers and prime movers simultaneously during particular movements.
    Body weight exercises are exercises that do not require additional load such as dumbbells, barbells, or strength- training machines.  An individual's own body weight along with gravity provides the resistance for the movement.
    Suspension trainers are an innovative approach to body-weight fitness training that uses a system of ropes and webbing that allows the user to work against their own body weight while performing various exercises. 

    A unique training concept I that it allows personal trainers to modify exercises to meet the needs of virtually any client.  Suspension movements are distinquished from traditional exercises in that either the user's hands or feet are supported by a single anchor point while the opposite end of the body is in contact with the ground, enabling the loading and unloading of movements to meet individual needs and goals.  They allow individuals to manipulate body position and stability to provide multiplanar, multijoint exercises in a proprioceptively enriched environment.
    Also known as Swiss Balls, are frequently used in a variety of training facilities with a wide range of populations.  Popularized by Swiss physical therapist Dr. Susanne Klein-Vogleback for adults with a variety of orthopedic problems.

    These balls are most often made of soft PVC and can come in a variety of sizes.  They are primarily used to increase the demand for stability in an exercise, but can also be used to reinforce proper posture during squatting movements
    The BOSU ball is an inflated rubber hemisphere attached to a solid plastic surface. It looks like a stability ball but cut in half.  The name is an acronym for "Both Sides Up" referring to the ability to use the device with either side up.

    When the flat side is down, the dome offers a surface similar to a stability ball, providing a stability challenge, yet stable enough to stand on.  When the dome is down, the hemisphere on the ground provides and unstable surface with the flat bottom on top offering a platform on which the hands or feet can be placed to perform both upper and lower body exercises. 

    Training with the BOSU ball offers the ability to increase the intensity of an exercise by decreasing the stability.  Unlike the stability ball, the BOSU ball is relatively safe to stand on, so it is a practical device to train with to target lower limb balance and stability.
    More commonly referred to as whole-body vibration(WBV), was developed by a Russian scientist who used it in the training of cosmonauts in an effort to decrease the loss of muscle and bone mass while in space.

    Has now become a popular form of training in the fitness industry owing to its reported beneficial effects on stimulating greater muscle fiber involvement during exercise, leading to greater increases in lean body mass, weight loss, and changes in body composition. 

    Typically performed on a platform that generates (mainly)vertical sinusoidal vibrations(a smooth repetitive oscillation) that stimulate muscle contractions that are comparable to the tonic vibration reflex.
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NASM EXAM Chapter 15 Glossary
Chapter 15. Introduction to Exercise Modalities
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