Social Psychology 340

  1. What did Elizabeth Loftus find in 1974,1979, 2011?
    Found that those who had "seen" were indeed believed, even when their testimony was shown to be useless.
  2. What did Michael Leippe find in 1981 about jurors?
    Jurors are more skeptical of eyewitnesses whose memory of trivial details is poor though these tend to be the most accurate witnesses.
  3. Bell & Loftus dicovered what in 1988, 1989 about faces?
    Actually, those who pay attention to surrounding details are less likely to attend to the culprits face.
  4. Loftus in (1979, 2001) found what after suggestive questions?
    Witnesses may believe that a red light was actually green or that a robber had a mustache when he didn't. when questioned by the police who framed their own understanding of what happened.
  5. What is Misinformation effect?
    Incorporating, "misinformation" into one's memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about them.
  6. Garry and others 1996 expalins imagination inflation as what?
    Happens partly because visualizing something activates similar area in the brain as does actually experiencing it. like false confessions.
  7. What measures were suggested for REDUCING ERROR?
    They include ways to train police interviewers and administer lineups. (Canada)
  8. What did Michael Efran (1974) find about attractiveness of the convicted?
    More attractive people were given a lesser punishment then unattractive and were found not guilty than guilty.
  9. What is reactance?
    A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom.  Reactance arises when someone threatens out freedom of action.
  10. What do conviction prone jurors tend to be?
    More of an authoritarian, more rigid, punitive.
  11. What did Mark Costanzo(1997) Craig Haney and Deana Logan(1994) have found about the death penalty deterrence issue?
    States with death penalty have not dropped in homicide rates, and have not risen when abolished.
  12. What is a key feature that an appearance can fool a eyewitnesses?
    The baby face outlook. assumption that baby face people look too young to commit a crime.
  13. What feature influences the rate of bail rates by a judge of serious, moderate, minor crimes?
    The level of attractiveness of the criminal.
  14. What is aggression?
    Is a physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm.
  15. What are the two types of aggression?
    • Hostile aggression springs from anger, its goal is to injure.
    • Instrumental aggression aims to injure, but only as a means to some other end.
  16. What are the three big ideas about analyzing aggression?
    Biological influences (instinct), frustration, and learned behavior.
  17. What did Jean-Jacques Rousseau argue about aggression?
    Blames society, not human nature, for social evils.
  18. What did Thomas Hobbes argue about aggression?
    credits society for restraining the human brute.
  19. What is instinctive behavior?
    An innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species.
  20. What was Freud "death instinct"?
    Human aggression springs from a self-destructive impulse that get redirected towards others energy of a primitive death urge.
  21. What two people agreed that aggressive energy is instinctive.
    Freud and Lorenz
  22. What does Instinct theory fail to account for?
    aggressiveness from person to person and culture to culture.
  23. What body is more likely to be more aggressive under the influence of alcohol.
    Heavy body types. The like to throw their weight around.
  24. What is facial width to height ratio refereeing to?
    Men with wide facial features display more aggression.
  25. What is frustration aggression theory?
    The theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress.
  26. What is frustration?
    The blocking of a goal directed behavior.
  27. What is displacement?
    The redirection of aggression to a target other than the source o the frustration. generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.
  28. What did researcher Bernard Gesch find out about nutritional diet link?
    aggression decreased in a prison by 35% with a good diet plan.
  29. What is frustration-aggression theory suppose to explain?
    Explain hostile aggression, not instrumental aggression.
  30. What is relative deprivation?
    The perception that one is less well off than others with whom on compares oneself.
  31. What war did relative deprivation relate to?
    World war 2, with the study a satisfaction by soldiers.
  32. What is social learning theory?
    The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.
  33. What is prejudice?
    A preconceived negative (Attitude) judgement of a group and its individual members.
  34. What is a stereotype?
    A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people.  Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information (and sometimes accurate).
  35. What is sensitivity to diversity?
    When someone prefers to be accurately described them.
  36. What is the social perception glass?
    judgements of other people is about 90  percent.
  37. Discrimationation is?
    Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members.
  38. Racism is?
    an individual prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race.
  39. Sexism is?
    An individual prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex.
  40. implicit cognition is?
    Carpenter 2008 showed- what you know without knowing that you know.
  41. What is " benevolent sexism" and " hostile sexism"?
    • Women have a superior moral sensibility.
    • once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash.
  42. Social dominace orientation
    A motivation to have ones group dominate other social groups.
  43. Ethnocentric?
    Believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
  44. What did Altemeyer report about double highs?
    Are among the most prejudiced persons in out society have worst qualities of each type of personality of dogmatic and ethnocentric. these are the leaders of hate groups.
Card Set
Social Psychology 340
Exam 3