(C), a nitrogenous base of the pyrimidine family, found in nucleotides.
A functional group important in energy transfer.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
Term used to describe the 3-dimensional shape of a protein.
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.