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  1. Karyokinesis
    specifically means nuclear division
  2. Cytokinesis
    division of cell cytoplasm
  3. The Cell Cycle
    • Various stages during its life time. 
    • Interphase then mitosis
  4. Interphase
    • non-dividing, “metabolic” cell; 90-95% of a cell’s life is spent in this stage
    • G1
    • S
    • G2
  5. G1
    (growth 1)
    General cell growth.
  6. S phase
    DNA replication. The cell will have to copy its DNA in order for its daughter cells to end up with the proper amount of DNA after mitosis.
  7. Human Somatic Cells (body cells)
    • Contain the diploid number of
    • chromosomes: 46 chromosomes/cell/nucleus; 23 pairs – 23 from sperm, 23
    • from egg.
  8. Haploid Cells
    • The process of going from 46 to 23 chromosomes is termed meiosis.
    • This only happens to germ cells which later become the gametes; sperm and eggs.
  9. G2 Phase
    (Growth 2)
    Preparation for mitosis. Synthesis of the organelles needed for mitosis.
  10. Mitosis
    ( 4 phases)
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase.
  11. Prophase
    • Longest phase of mitosis
    • 1 – chromatin condenses to make chromosomes.
    • 2 – nucleolus disperses
    • 3 - nuclear membrane disperses
    • 4 – spindle apparatus forms as the centrioles move to the opposite ends, or
    • poles, of the cell.
  12. Spindle fibers
    1. Chromosomal
    2. Continuous
    3. Astral
    • 1. Which extend from each pole to the centromeres of the chromosomes and they also walk up and down 2 fiber.
    • 2. Extend from pole to pole
    • 3. Extend from the poles away from the chromosomes to attach to the cell membrane. They anchor the spindle apparatus.
  13. Metaphase
    • the chromosomes are jostled back and forth by the chromosomal fibers until their centromeres are arranged in the equatorial plane 
    • (prevents tearing and tangles)
  14. Anaphase
    Begins when the centromeres duplicate and the chromosomal fibers begin to pull the two chromatids of each chromosome apart. Chromatids of each chromosome are pulled to opposite poles.
  15. Telophase
    • Begins when the chromatids (now chromosomes) reach the opposite poles. The completion of cytokinesis generally accompanies telophase.
    • 1 – the nuclear membrane reforms
    • 2 – the nucleolus reforms
    • 3 – the chromosomes disperse to form chromatin
    • 4 – the spindle apparatus is dismantled (when cytokinesis is completed)
  16. Cytokinesis
    • Division of the cytoplasm of the cell. 
    • The cleavage furrow is an in- growing groove around the center of the cell which continues to grow inward until it pinches through the cell forming two cells. 
    • (created by a ring of micro- filaments attached to the cell membrane)
    • (can be seen as early as anaphase)
Card Set
mitosis for anatomy and physiology
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