Bio 304 Final

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  1. Was the
    route of cultivating sugar cane: Caribbean, Africa, New England.
    Sugar Triangle of Americas
  2. Genus: Saccharum. Family Poaceae.
    This is grown for 3 years in 
    succession, then they let the field fallow (resting) – b/c it's
    not a perennial plant.
    Sugar Cane
  3. What is the family name for the Morning Glory family?
  4. Ipoema Batatas is a sp. from the Morning Glory family. It's harvested as a root from South America. What is the common name?
    Sweet Potato
  5. Why do people burn cane after it is cut?
    They effectively remove all the leaves, and leaves the stalk of sugar. Also, intense heat given off begins the process of reducing the water in the stalk to concentrate the sugar.
  6. What is a perennial plant?
    Lives on and reproduces indefinitely.
  7. Sweet potatoes are _______ in temperate places, but perennial in tropics.
  8. ________ is the component left after boiling crushed sugar cane to remove the crystalline sugar. Also used as a food source for livestock.
  9. _______ sugar is not cleaned, has larger grains, and tends to clump together b/c there's a thin layer of molasses.
  10. _______ sugar is just cleaned sugar. AKA Granulated sugar.
  11. _________ sugar is tiny crystal sugar with corn starch added to prevent them from adhering to each other.
  12. _________  sugar is just granulated sugar with molasses added.
  13. The scientific name for the common beet is _______ _______.
    Beta Vulgaris
  14. Genus name for true yams?
  15. Sweet potatoes are easier to grow than true yams because yams thrive in ________ climates.
  16. A yam is a _______ root, just like a sweet potatoes. But they are very large.
  17. Yams are poisonous if eaten raw because of _____ ______ in the skin. Must be cooked.
    oxalic acid
  18. ____ ______ are yams that grow right off the vine.
    Air potatoes
  19. Yucca root is also known as ______ or _______. The scientific name is ________ _________.
    cassava, manioc, manihot esculenta
  20. ______ roots are the most important tropical root throughout tropics because it grows in the worse conditions. Native to south America.
  21. Starch from yucca is turned into ______, which is used as a thickening agent.
  22. Roots of the yucca plant have a ________ compound.
  23. Some of the foods that we get from the flower of a plant: _______, _______ and _______.
    Broccoli, cauliflower, artichokes.
  24. Some foods that we get from leaves: ______, ______ greens, ______ greens, _____, ______ sprouts, _______ and garlic.
    spinach, mustard, turnip, kale, brussel, onions
  25. Some foods we get from stems: ______, _______, _______ (my favorite), ______ cane and ________.
    broccoli, cauliflower, asparagus, sugar, potatoes
  26. This is the scientific name for the mustard family: ________, or the old name after the cross shape of the four petals ________.
    brassicaceae, cruciferae
  27. This is the primary genus of brassicaceae (mustard family) and contains broccoli, cauliflower, kale, turnips, mustard and brussel sprouts, cabbage. *Note, many of these are same sp (oleracea)., just variations.
  28. The ________ was considered the poor man's food.
  29. ________ is the sunflower family, it's old name is _______.
    Asteraceae, compositae
  30. The most popular genus of asteraceae is _____.
  31. ________ is the genus name of the asteraceae family plant that we eat. The cultivated version of this plant is called lettuce.
  32. There is a sp. of lettuce called _______ _____, it produces hickory.
    chicorum endive
  33. ______ comes from east Asia and is known for its high iron content, although only a small portion of it can be ingested b/c it's bound to ______ ______.
    Spinach, calcium oxilate
  34. The sp. _______ _______ is the potato, from S. America. Grown at high altitudes.
    solanum tuberosum
  35. A _____ is an underground storage system in plants.
  36. ______ is made by stomping on potatoes and freezing the remains over and over again in order to have potato starch for later.
  37. The _____ _____ famine occurred in 1845, and is the reason we call potatoes Irish potatoes.
    Irish potato
  38. _____ sugar is just refined sugar with molasses added to it.
  39. Spices and herbs have no real nutritional value. _____ are described as being hot and bitter, and ______ are described as being aromatic and subtle - typically taken from leaves and stems.
    spices, herbs
  40. ________ or the old name _______ is the mint family.
    lamiaceae, labiatae
  41. _______ are true mint plants b/c they find purpose in medicines and foods; these include: _______ (peppermint) or ______ (spearmint).
    Marentha, pepperita, spicata
  42. ________ is the genus name for rosemary; it is common along coastlines of Mediterranean and it's flowers look like sea foam. Used to disguise taste of meat, also used in perfumes or hair conditioners.
  43. ______ is the genus name for oregano, whose use soared after WW2.
  44. ______ is the genus name of thyme. It has the highest antifungal / antiseptic property than any mint plant. Also has the tiniest leaves.
  45. The genus_____ is where sage comes from; popular use in cooking turkey or eurosausages. Comes from the word 'salvation'.
  46. Marentha, rosmarinus, origanum thymus and savlia are all genera coming from the _____ family.
    lamiaceae or mint
  47. The family iridaceae contains the genus_____ which contains the spice saffron. It's regarded as the most expensive spice in the world as it is only attained from stamen. Intensive yellow color.
  48. _____ _____ is the scientific name of black pepper, originating in SE Asia. *Important trade for European continent.
    Piper Nigrum
  49. ______ is the leading exporter of black pepper on the planet.
  50. The fruit which is black pepper is a small ______.
  51. White pepper only comes from the ______ of the fruit.
  52. _____  (the seed) and _____ (the fleshy covering) originates in the south pacific. Fruit is large peach size fruit containing a big seed covered with red flesh.
    Nutmeg, mace
  53. The spice _______ was used to flavor the alcohol rum.
  54. ________ and _______ were the islands which were famous for cultivating nutmeg.
    Trinidad, Grenada
  55. A devastating fungus destroyed the nutmeg crop in SE Asia, and so the small island of _______ became world known for it's nutmeg cultivation.
  56. _________ is the family that contains the genus vanilla.
  57. ______ is the 2nd most expensive spice in the world, comes from an orchid.
  58. The most labor intensive part of getting vanilla spice is ________ the orchid it comes from.
  59. The _______ process of the vanilla fruit is what gives it the intense flavor.
  60. Real vanilla _____ is made from vanilla beans, while imitation vanilla made from fermented wood pulp - makes the same sort of aroma.
  61. The genus name for the new world spice 'allspice' is called ________.
  62. The spice _______ resembles a combination of 3 spices: cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Common in the Caribbean.
  63. Vanilla is a ___ world spice.
  64. Trees on the island of _______ are renowned for cultivating the best quality allspice.
  65. By 1700 BC ______ and ______ produced extensive writings about medicinal plants. One having over 700 formulas.
    Egypt and Babylonia
  66. If you chew the bark of this tree, it would relieve minor aches and pains. Genus name Salix. Where we get the term salicylic acid.
  67. ___________ was known as the father of medicine. Was the first guy to talk about illnesses in terms of natural causes.
  68. Root diggers were drug merchants in midieval times that were known as __________.
  69. The period of time that medicinal stuff was growing was called the ______ __ of Greece.
    Golden Age
  70. This man conquered the known world at age 19. He also brought plants back to his friend Theophrastus.
    Alexander the Great
  71. _______ was a teacher whose specialty was zoology.
  72. _________ was the father of botany. Was the first to record technical features and descriptions of plants.
  73. __________ is not only the genus name of yams, but is also the name of the father of pharmacology. He traveled with the Roman Army and collected plant/ medical info - wrote a 5 volume book called __ ______ ______.
  74. De Materia Medica was the authority on medicine for _____ years. It described ___ spp. and described ____ drugs.
    1500, 600, 1000
  75. __________ undid the tried and true methods of De Materia Medica by popularizing "Doctrine of Signatures".
  76. The "_______ __ _______" was based on Paeacelsus' claim that God gave him insight into medicinal properties by placing 'signs' in plants.
    Doctrine of Signatures
  77. What are six secondary plant substances used medicinally?
    Fatty Acids, Gums, Resins, Oils, Alkaloids, Steroids
  78. The origin of Cannabis was ___ east (China).
  79. There is a Chinese legend saying that God gave us one plant to fulfill all needs, and that plant was _____. It's probably the most profitable plant in the US.
  80. Some of the many uses of cannabis include uses gained from: ____ (nets...), nutritious edible _____, ____ (lighting, paints...), and correcting spiritual imbalances.
    fibers, seeds, oils
  81. Through cultivation in _______, the psychoactive drug in the plant cannabis was concentrated.
  82. ____ is the name of the drink made from cannabis.
  83. _____ is the name of the product from cooking the resin in cannabis.
  84. Cannabis reached the New World in the _____s.
  85. _____ and _______ were the first states to ban marijuana - it was probably racially motivated (1930s).
    Texas, Louisiana
  86. Greeks referred to _______ poppy as the joy plant. Genus name papaver.
  87. Ingesting the _____ (milky substance in the plant of opium) would induce sleep and relieve pain.
  88. The Greek god ________ was named so after the opium poppy plant.
  89. Opium cultivation began in the _____ _____.
    middle east (Turkey)
  90. Opium wars: 1837: Due to ______ attacking a ______ ship carrying opium.
    Chinese, British
  91. ______ lost the second opium war.
  92. _________ is a mixture of opium and alcohol.
  93. ________ was isolated from opium around 1803, it was found to be 10x stronger than opium.
  94. The dangers of morphine addiction were not discovered until after the _____ war.
  95. The attempt made to make morphine less addictive wound up making _______, which is even more addictive.
  96. The plant that gives us cocaine is called _____________ _____.
    erythroxylem coca
  97. This drug was isolated from coca leaves and was recommended by Freud to cure alcoholism, morphine addiction, depression and to use it as a local anesthetic.
  98. ____ ____ was originally s headache medicine. It contained cocaine and caffeine.
    Coca cola
  99. ________ is the cactus family, which is all native to the Americas.
  100. The _____ plant is a spineless soft fleshy cactus, native to northern Mexico, used as a psychoactive drug by natives for a long time.
  101. It is legal to use peyote if you are a member of the ______ _______ church.
    native American
  102. _____ ______ is commonly called Morning Glory, and it't the source of LSD - found in Mexico.
    ipoema tricolor
  103. The LSD compound is obtained from the _____ of morning glory plant.
  104. The sp _______ _______ gives us tobacco. Native to Americas, from Solanaceae.
    nicotiana tobacum
  105. ____ ____ was made wealthy by importing tobacco into Europe to sell it. Linneaus named the sp. after him.
    Jean Nicot
  106. ______ ______ has had the greatest impact on the world than any other plant.
    nicotiana tobacum
  107. ________ tobacco is exclusively cultivated in LA.
  108. The process of making tobacco involves the ________ of the leaves which is a chemical change occurring to compounds of the plants.
  109. ________ is a CNS stimulant. It can cause nausea, dizziness and even hallucinations in large doses. It's physically addictive and in its pure form, seriously poisonous.
  110. Stimulating beverages are considered any beverage that contains ________.
  111. Caffeine mimics our own _________. This increases heart rate, stomach acidity, invigoration, urine output and 10% of all metabolic functions.
  112. The three stimulating beverages are: ______, ______ and ____.
    coffee, chocolate and tea
  113. _____ ____ is the sp. name for the coffee plant that is cultivated - native to Ethiopia. We use this sp. because it is self-compatible.
    coffea arabica
  114. _____ is only 2nd to oil in terms of trade value.
  115. _______ were the first nationality to brew coffee.
  116. Martinique became heavily populated with the coffee plant because someone brought a lone coffee plant from a garden in _______, _____.
    Paris, France
  117. The fruits of the coffee bean are picked by hand, because they _________ at different times.
  118. ______ now leads the world in coffee production.
  119. Decaffeinated coffee is processed with either _____ or solvent (__________) - the latter is most effective.
    steam, methylchloride
  120. _______ was an additive to coffee in LA in order to stretch the product.
  121. ______ _____ is the scientific name for the chocolate plant.
    theobroma cacoa
  122. ______ is the common name for the plant we et chocolate from used by natives (Mexico, Central America).
  123. ______ is the name of the beverage made from theobroma cacao.
  124. ________ island, AKA Haiti and the Dominican Republic and _________ were the 1st places which held a monopoly on chocolate.
    Hispaniola, Trinidad
  125. _______ is a leading producer of chocolate because the plant has no natural pests there.
  126. The chocolate plant is ________ meaning the fruits are on the trunk.
  127. Chocolate seeds are allowed to _______ in piles before excess pulp is removed and beans are sold.
  128. The process of "________" is pressure treating chocolate seeds to get the bitter oils an fats out.
  129. cocoa butter are the ____ pressured out of chocolate seeds.
  130. ________ _______ is the flowering plant used to make tea. Native to China.
    camelia sinense
  131. Black tea is allowed to _______, unlike green tea.
  132. ______ is the largest producer of tea, ________ coming in second. ______ also does commercial tea cultivation.
    India, Shrilanka, Argentina
  133. The fermentation process in stimulating beverages is considered _________.
  134. The fermentation process for alcoholic beverages is considered a _____ _________ fermentation.
    True microbial
  135. The genus name for yeast is ____________. Other wise known as the sugar fungus.
  136. Yeast consumes ______ and gives off _____ and _________ .
    sugar, CO2 and alcohol
  137. The highest level of alcohol that can be produced by yeast is __ % because otherwise it will be enough to kill them.
  138. To make alcohol stronger than 18%, we may use either ______ (boiling and collecting residue) or _________ (just adding alcohol).
    distillation, fortification
  139. By around ____ BC, grapes were being cultivated for the purpose of wine.
  140. The _____ were the first people who began drinking wine as an everyday drink.
  141. ______ ______ in wine containers affected the taste of wine to where it had to be diluted.
    pine resin
  142. _______ were the guys who eliminated the pine resin issue in wine containers.
  143. The reason we get drunk is because the alcohol moves through cells faster than they can break it down. *FACT
  144. _____ is considered the ancestor of alcoholic beverages. It's made with watered down honey.
  145. Wine is essentially fermented fruit juice. We typically use ____ from the genus ______.
    grapes, vitis
  146. The humidity in LA prevented the French from planting cultivating their fancy wine grapes due to their weakness to ________ and ________.
    fungi and bacteria
  147. Grains: ______ old, _______ new name.
    Beans: ______old, _______ new name.
    Mustard ______ old, ______ new name.
    Sunflower: ______ old, ______ new name.
    Mint: ______ old, _______ new name.
    Palm: ______ old, ______ new name.
    • graminae, poaceae
    • leguminosea, fabaceae
    • cruficereae, brassicaceae
    • compositae, asteraceae
    • labiateae, lamiaceae
    • plamae, arecaceae
Card Set
Bio 304 Final
Final Exam
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