Cell Biology day 1

  1. Amino acid
    An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
  2. Protobionts
    Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules.
  3. Single-strand binding protein
    During DNA replication, molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while the DNA strands serve as templates for the synthesis of complimentary strands of DNA.
  4. Polysaccharide
    A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
  5. Terminator
    A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene.
  6. Ligation
    Joining of two DNA molecules by forming covalent bonds between the free end of their sugar-phosphate backbones.
  7. Hydrogen bond
    A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
  8. Disaccharide
    A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
  9. Building block principle
    Describes how the large complex molecules found in living systems are quite simple in their basic construction, being polymers made of a chain of monomeric ‘building blocks’.
  10. Haploid
    A cell containing only one set of chromosomes.
Card Set
Cell Biology day 1
Day 1 of cell biology