The Integumentary System

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  1. Epidermis
    Contains 4 distinct types of cells?
    • Is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that contains four distinct types of cells: 
    • keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Tactile Epithelial Cells
    • Dendrictic Cells
  2. Keratinocytes
    The most abundant epidermal cell, produce keratin, a tough fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its protective properties
  3. Thick Skin vs. Thin Skin
    • Thick: covers the palms and soles, the epidermis consists of five layers
    • Thin: covers the rest of the body, only four strata ("bed sheet") are present
  4. Stratum Basale 
    the deepest epidermal layer, is firmly attached to the underlying dermis along a wavy boderline
  5. Tactile Epithelial Cells
    • AKA Merkel Cells
    • are distributed sparsely among the keratinocytes
    • each hemisphere-shaped tactile epithelial cell is intimately associated with a disclike sensory nerve ending and functions as a receptor for touch
  6. Melanocytes
    • makes up about 10%-25% of the cells in the stratum basale
    • spider shaped
    • makes the dark skin pigment melanin
  7. How much skin does a person shed in a lifetime?
    about 40 lbs
  8. The dermis has two regions:
    • Papillary dermis
    • Recticular Dermis
  9. Papillary dermis
    the superficial 20% of the dermis, is areolar connective tissue containing very thin collagen and elastic fibers
  10. Reticular Dermis
    accounts for about 80% of the thickness of the dermis, is dense irregular connective tissue
  11. Three pigments contribute to skin color:
    • melanin
    • carotene
    • hemoglobin
  12. Hematoma
    the general term for a clotted mass of escaped blood anywhere in the body
  13. Skin Appendages
    • include nails, hair and hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sweat glands
    • derive from the epithelial cells of the epidermis, they all extend into the dermis
  14. Nail
    is a scalelike modification of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other mamals
  15. Hair
    is a flexible strand made of dead cells filled with hard keratin
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The Integumentary System
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