The Human Body: An Orientation

  1. Anatomy (Morphology)
    is the study of the structure of the human body
  2. Physiology
    the study of body function
  3. Gross Anatomy
    • (gross = large)
    • is the study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye (ex. bones, lungs, and muscles)
  4. Dissection ("cut apart")
    an important technique for studying gross anatomy, in which connective tissue is removed from between the body organs so that the organs can be seen more clearly
  5. Regional Anatomy
    • all structures in a single body region, such as the abdomen or head, are examined as a group
    • how medical school approaches it
  6. Systemic Anatomy
    • all the organs with related functions are studied together
    • how most college anatomy courses approach it
  7. Surface Anatomy
    the study of shapes and markings (called landmarks) on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs
  8. Microscopic Anatomy
    is the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope
  9. Histology
    the study of tissues
  10. Cytology 
    Study of cells
  11. Embryology
    is the study of how body structures form and develop before birth
  12. Developmental Anatomy
    traces the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span and the effects of aging
  13. Pathological Anatomy
    • deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease
    • Pathology is the study of disease
  14. Radiographic Anatomy
    is the study of internal body structures by means of X-ray studies and other imaging techniques
  15. Functional Morphology
    explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design
  16. what are the four classes of macromolecules found in the body?
    • Proteins
    • Fat/Lipids
    • Carbs
    • Nucleic Acid
  17. How many cells make up the human body?
    100 trillion cells
  18. What are the four tissue types that make up all of the organs of the human body?
    • Epithelial Tissue (epithelium)
    • Connective Tissue
    • Muscle Tissue
    • Nervous Tissue
  19. Anatomical Position
    • in this position, a person stands erect with feet flat on the ground, toes pointing forward, and eyes facing forward
    • the palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body
  20. Axial Region
    it makes up the main axis of the body, consists of the head, neck, and trunk
  21. Appendicular Regions
    consists of the limbs, which are called appendages or extremities
  22. Frontal (Coronal) Plane
    extends vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  23. Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
    • runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior ad inferior parts
    • a transverse section is also called a cross section
  24. Sagittal Planes 
    are vertical, like frontal planes, but divide the body into right and left parts
  25. Oblique Section
    cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and vertical
  26. Visceral Organ (Viscera)
    internal organ of an animal
  27. Parietal/Visceral Serosa
    • Parietal forms the outer wall of the cavity
    • Visceral covers the visceral organs
    • Produces Serous Fluid
    • Also compartmentalize the various organs so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to others
  28. Serous Fluid
    • Serous = watery
    • located in serous cavities (pericardial, peritoneal, pleural)
    • the slippery serous fluid allows the visceral organs to slide with little friction across the cavity walls as they carry out their routine functions
  29. Microscopy
    is the examination of small structures with a microscope
  30. Acidic Stains/Basic Stains
    • dyes with negatively charged molecules stain the positively charged structures of the cell or tissue, and thus they are called acidic stains
    • Positively charged dyes, by contrast basic stains because they bind to, and stain, negatively charged structures
  31. Two main types of microscopes are now used to investigate the fine structures of organs, tissues, and cells.
    Light Microscope (LM) and the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM or just EM)
  32. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    provides three dimensional pictures of whole, unsectioned surfaces with striking clarity
  33. Artifacts
    Each preparatory step introduces minor distortions, called artifacts, most microscopic structures viewed by anatomists are not exactly like those in living tissue
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The Human Body: An Orientation