What are the basic human needs regarding safety?
Physiologic needs, including the need for sufficient oxygen, nutrition, and optimum temperature and humidity, influence a persons safety.
What are some physical hazards and how can they be reduced or eliminated?
Many physical hazards, especially those contributing to falls, can be minimized through adequate lighting, reduction of obstacles, control of bathroom hazards, and security measures.
What developmental changes and abilities (Infant, Toddler & Preschooler/School-aged Child/Adolescent/Adult/Older Adult) predispose individuals to accidents or injury?
- The incidence of lead poisoning is highest in late infancy and toddlerhood because of a childs increased level of oral activity and the growing ability to explore the environment.
- Bike related injuries are a major cause of death and disability among children.
- The risk of motor vehicle accidents is higher among teen drivers than any other age group. Teens are more likely to speed, run red lights, ride with intoxicated drivers, and drive after using alcohol and drugs.
- The threats to an adults safety are frequently related to lifestyle habits like drinking and driving and smoking or poor stress management.
- The physiologic changes that occur during the aging process increase the clients risk for falls and other types of accidents such as burns and car accidents.
What developmental interventions can the nurse use to prevent
What additional risk factors may affect an individual's level of safety?
Lifestyle, impaired mobility, sensory or communication impairment, lack of safety awareness.
What risks exists in the health care agency, and how may they be prevented?
- Falls account for up to 90% of all reported incidents in hospitals.
- Falls preventions like bed rails up.
- Client inherent accidents are accidents other than falls where the client is the primary reason for the accident.
- Examples are self-inflicted cuts, injuries, and burns, ingestion or injection of foreign substances.
- Client inherent accident may occur as a result of a seizure.
- Procedure related accidents include medication and fluid admin errors, improper application of external devise, and accidents related to improper performance of procedures like a Foley insertion.
- Following policy and procedures of establishment solves much of these.
- Equipment related accidents result from the malfunction, disrepair, or misuse of equipment or from an electrical hazard.
- Clinical engineering staff should make regular safety checks of equipment.
How would the nurse conduct a history that focuses on safety?
Determine if there are any underlying conditions that pose threats to safety. The nurse will give special attention to assessing the clients gait, muscle strength and coordination, balance, and vision, and reviewing their meds.
What questions would facilitate an assessment of safety?
- In a home hazard assessment the nurse should walk through the home with the client and discuss how the client normally conducts adls.
- Key areas to inspect are the bathroom, kitchen, and areas with stairs.
- In the health care environment; does the placement of equipment or furniture pose barriers when the client attempts to ambulate?
- Does positioning of the clients bed allow the client to reach items on a bedside table or stand?
- Does the client need assistance with ambulation/
What are the procedures for the correct use of side rails and safety devices?
When a client is not able to freely and easily ambulate independently.
How can the nurse avoid the use of client restraints?
Orient clients to surroundings, encourage family and friends to stay, assign confused or disoriented clients to rooms near the nurses station, provide appropriate visual and auditory stimuli, use relaxation techniques, provide scheduled toileting, evaluate all meds to see if they are having the desired effect.
When would the use of restraints be necessary? What are the various forms of restraints?
If the client continually tries to interrupt needed therapy, if theyre repeatedly trying to ambulate independently creating a serious risk of injury. Various forms of restraints are jacket restraint, belt restraint, extremity restraint, mitten restraint, elbow restraint.
What assessment information should be obtained regarding client and family safety?
Home hazard assessment, assessment for risks of food infections of poisoning encompass obtaining a detailed dietary assessment for the past week, assessment of the environmental comfort of a clients home should include a review of when the client normally has heating and cooling systems serviced.
How can the nurse assist clients and families in reducing or eliminating safety hazards?
They would go over the various risks posed by the clients circumstances and educate them on how to avoid hazards that are avoidable and they can put them in touch with people like lead investigators from the state.
What are body mechanics?
How the body moves
How may body mechanics be influenced by pathological conditions?
People with a cva may have partial paralysis which leaves them with altered body mechanics such as a leg that drags or isnt as mobile as the other leg if at all.
What client assessment data should be obtained regarding body mechanics?
How they are at risk for injury due to body mechanics. What hazards around the environment will cause more impedance due to their body mechanics. Observe their gait and posture, muscle strength, visual acuity, or corrective lenses.
What is activity tolerance?
How well a client tolerates activity?
What safety measures should be implemented before client transfers and ambulation?
Nonslip socks, establish how much a patient will be able to assist you in helping them, perhaps a transfer belt.
How should the client be taught to use assistive devices, such as canes, walkers and crutches?
With the nurse supporting them and going slowly.
What psychosocial or physiological factors encourage client participation in activity programs?