Parasitology - Heartworms

  1. What year was the first case of heartworm disease found in a cat
  2. In order for an animal to have heartworm disease what two other things must the animal have
    • Must have heartworms
    • Debilitating symptoms associated with heartworm infection
  3. What three areas are a cosmopolitan distribution for heartworms (highest to lowest)
    • Gulf coast
    • East coast
    • Great lakes
  4. What state has had heartworms diagnosed there but there is no proof of transmission occurring there
  5. What is the resistant stain of heartworms called
    MP3 strain
  6. What is the genus and species for heartworms in large cats, primarily found in Africa
    Dirofilaria ripens
  7. Where was heartworm first diagnosed in the US
    Hennepin County, Minnesota in 1937
  8. Some dogs are positive for heartworms, what is the percentage of dogs that do not have microfilaria
  9. What are two reasons that dogs do not have microfilaria
    • Only same sex is present
    • Immune recognition
  10. What are 4 heartworm symptoms often noted by owners
    • coughing
    • loss of stamina
    • Ascities
    • front legs bowed outward
  11. What are 4 ways to diagnose heartworm disease
    • Blood samples
    • History
    • Radiology
    • Echocardiography
  12. What are 5 methods for diagnosing heartworms with blood samples
    • Direct smear
    • Modified Knot's test
    • Difil Test/Milipore filtration test *best for S1*
    • Hematocrit tube
    • Occult test *BEST TEST*
  13. What are the 4 best test for Microfilaria (highest to lowest)
    • Modified Knot's method - 85%
    • Difil test/ Milipore filtration test - 80 - 85%
    • Direct Smear - 64%
    • Microhematocrit tube
  14. What are two type of Occult test still on the market
    • Antibody test
    • Antigen test
  15. What are the two types of Antibody test used
    • DAT - dirofilariae antibody test (for cats)
    • MAT - microfilariae antibody test
  16. What are two types of Antigen test used
    • ELIZA test
    • Immunochromatographic test
  17. Term for a group of ELISA test being run
    Batch testing
  18. All antigen test are said to need how many mature females in order to get a positive occult test
  19. What are 4 things that can cause a false negative heartworm test
    • Blood sample is not warmed up to room temperature
    • Infection is light
    • Immature females
    • Only males are present
  20. What are two of the largest veterinarian labs in the US
    • IDEXX
    • ANTECH
  21. What are three reasons that dogs aren't protected from heartworms each year
    • 24% of all pet owners spend nothing at the vet
    • clients don't understand heartworm disease
    • Pricing of treatment/preventative deter many clients
  22. What are two things that are critical in persuading clients to further health care for their pets
    • Communication
    • Consistency
  23. How many heartworms does the average cat have in its heart
    1 - 2
  24. What are three reasons that cats are not sensitive to the ELISA/antigen test
    • Low heartworm burden
    • Immature female heartworms in teh early stages of the life cycle
    • A male heartworm infection
  25. What is the percent range for cats diagnosed with heartworms on necropsy
    50 - 70%
  26. What are the three most useful test to confirm heartworms for a cat
    • Serology
    • Thoracic radiographs
    • Echocardiography
  27. What are two changes often seen in the radiographs of a heartworm positive dog
    • Enlargement of the pulmonary artery at 1 o'clock
    • Enlargement of the right side of the heart "Inverted D"
  28. What are two changes often seen in the radiographs of a heartworm positive cat
    • Enlargement of the main lobar and peripheral pulmonary arteries
    • Pulmonary artery is greater than 1.6 times the width of the ninth rib
  29. When taking a radiograph what are the two views that must be taken
    • Lateral view
    • Ventral Dorsal view
  30. What are the 4 Macrocyclic lactones used as preventive medications
    • Ivermectin
    • Milbemycin oxime
    • Selamectin
    • Moxidectin
  31. What are three products that will react with Microfilaria
    • Diethylcarbamazine citrate (Filaribits)
    • Diclovos (Task)
    • Milbemycin oxime (Sentinal)
  32. What was the first oral heartworm preventative on the market
    Diethylcarbamazine citrate (Filaribits)
  33. What are two non-macrocyclic lactones
    • Diethylcarbamazine citrate
    • Styrylpyridinium chloride diethylcarbamazine phosphate
  34. Macrocyclic lactones are produced naturally as fermentation by-product of ____ from the bacterial genus _______
    • Actinomycetes
    • Streptomyces
  35. What are the 4 drugs from the family Avermectins
    • Ivermectin
    • Selemectin
    • Doramectin
    • Eprinomectin
  36. What are 2 drugs from the family Milbemycin
    • Milbemycin oxime
    • Moxidectin
  37. What was the first alternative to DEC for heartworm prevention
    Heartgard (Ivermectin) made by Merial
  38. What was the first heartworm preventative for cats
    Heartgard (Ivermectin)
  39. What breed/conditions should be taken into though with Ivermectin
    • Collie dogs (autosomal recessive inheritance)
    • Glycoprotein deficient dogs
  40. What was the old name for Novartis
    Ciba Geigy
  41. What was the first heartworm preventative combined with flea control drug
    Sentinel (Milbemycin oxime/Lufenuron)
  42. Lufenuron prevents the formation of ___
    chitin - causing egg shells and larvae skeletal structures to not form properly.
  43. Selamectin is derived from the Avermectin
    Endectocide (Doramectin)
  44. What was the first flea and heartworm preventative
    Selamectin (Revolution)
  45. Moxidectin i sa semi-synthetic Milbemycin derived from
  46. What is Advantage Multi called in Europe
  47. Term for drugs/medications meant to prevent disease or infection
  48. Term for the process by which the embryo forms and develops
  49. What are two properties of Macrocyclic lactones for heartworm
    • Clear microfilaria from the blood stream
    • Retard repopulation by suppressing embryogenesis.
  50. Term for having an antigen in the blood
  51. If a dog cannot receive heartworm treatment then it is placed on Macrocyclic lactones. What are 3 beneficial things that ML's do
    • Deplete the microfilaria
    • Sterilize the adults
    • shorten the life of current adults
  52. What is the average life span for adult heartworms
    5 - 7 years
  53. What is the non proprietary name for Immiticide
    Melarsomine dihydrochloride
  54. What company originally developed Immiticide
    Rhone Merieux
  55. Where is Immiticide injected
    Epaxial lumbar muscle
  56. What are two adulticides used for heartworm treatment
    • Thiacetarsamide sodium (Caparsolate)
    • Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide)
  57. What are two drugs that were used as adulticides that are not currently used today
    • Levamisole HCl
    • Fenthion (Talodex)
  58. What is the, not FDA approved, drug of choice to treat microfilaria
  59. What is the only drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of microfilaria
    Dithiazine Iodine (Dizan)
  60. What are 6 drugs that were used as microfilariacides
    • Ivermectin (Ivomec 1%)
    • Selamectin (Revolution)
    • Milbemycin (Interceptor)
    • Dithiazine Iodien (Dizan)
    • Levamisole HCl
    • Fenthion (Talodex)
  61. Describe a Class 1 heartworm positive dog
    • Asymptomatic to mild heartworm disease
    • No radiographic/anemia signs
    • No laboratory problems
    • May have loss of condition and occasional cough
  62. Describe the symptoms of a Class 2 heartworm positive dog
    • Moderate heartworm disease
    • Radiographic signs (enlarged PA/Inverted D) / anemia are obvious
    • Mild proteinuria
    • Mild - elevated laboratory test
    • Loss of condition with cough
  63. Describe the symptoms of a Class 3 heartworm positive dog
    • Severe heartworm disease
    • Radiographic signs/significant anemia
    • Hematuria (blood in urine)
    • Laboratory test are elevated (Liver/Kidney)
  64. What are the two new names for Cavel Syndrome
    • Dirofilarial Hemoglobinuria
    • Vena Cava Syndrome
  65. Heartworms that are heavily infected (long standing Class 3 or beyond) are said to have this disease
    Cavel Syndrome (Dirofilarial Hemoglobinuria)
  66. What is the obligate, intracellular bacteria seen with adult heartworms
  67. Wolbachia is a gram __ bacteria
    Gram negative bacteria
  68. What is the Order for Wolbachia
  69. What is the surface protein that produces endotoxins for Wolbachia
    Wolbachia Specific Protein
  70. The Wolbachia surface proteins are believed to contribute to what two things with heartworms
    • Pulmonary inflammation
    • Renal inflammation
  71. What is the drug of choice for treating Wolbachia
    Doxycycline (Clindamycin)
  72. Wolbachia is said to have this type of relationship with Dirofilaria immitis
    endosymbiony - something that coexisting infection with another Nematode/parasite
  73. Who is the president of the American Heartworm Association
    Wallace Graham, DVM
  74. What are 3 reasons why doxycycline is used with heartworm treatment
    • Circulating microfilaria become non-infective
    • Adult heartworms become easier to kill
    • Reduce post-treatment side effects from dying worms
  75. What are two terms that mean blocked blood supply resulting in dead tissue
    • Ischemia
    • Infarction
  76. What is the formula for converting C to F
    1.8 x C + 32 = F
  77. What is the average number of heartworms actually in the heart for dogs and cats
    • 8 - 14 adults
    • 1 - 2 adults
  78. Term for the immune system recognizes a foreign antigen and attacks it
    Immune Recognition
  79. What are thee reasons to treat for microfilaria
    • Potential threat to other dogs, ferrets, and cats
    • Pathological changes associated with high number of microfilaria make the treatment of the adults more complex. (brain and heart infarcts, renal problems)
    • Susceptible to anaphylactic reaction with drugs (DEC, Diclorvos, Milbemycin oxime)
  80. What is the percentage of dogs with Dirofilaria immitis that have renal disease
  81. What is the percent of cats positive for microfilaria
  82. What are 3 symptoms for anaphylactic shock
    • Dilated pupils
    • Diarrhea
    • vomiting
  83. What are the clinical signs for anaphylactic shock
    • WBC goes down in 1 hour
    • Alkaline phosphatase rapidly increase
    • Platelets will decrease instantly by 10,000
  84. What are the three phases of shock
    • Compensatory
    • Progressive
    • Irreversible
  85. What is the most common sign of toxicity
  86. What is the final symptom of shock
    dilated pupils
  87. What drug is the oldest NSAID on the market
  88. What are three beneficial effects from giving a dog aspirin
    • Protective effect on vascular endothelium
    • less blood flow obstruction
    • anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects
  89. what are 4 signs noted with Caval Syndrome
    • weakness
    • hemoglobinuria
    • tricuspid valvular insufficiency
    • jugular palpation
  90. What side of the heart failure are these found at
    Mitral valve insufficiency:
    • Right side
    • Left side
  91. term for blood backing up to the liver
  92. Blood pooling in the lungs
    Pulmonary edema
  93. Plasma will seep out of the liver and accumulate in the abdomen this is called
  94. What is the adult heartworm life span in dogs and cats
    • 7 years
    • 2 - 5 years
  95. After hurricane Katrina what was the increase for
    Heartworm disease in dogs and cats
    • 48.8%
    • 4.2%
    • 2.6%
    • 3.6%
  96. What two things are heartworms in cats often misdiagnosed as
    • Asthma
    • Allergic bronchitis
  97. What is the disease associated with coughing in cats infected with heartworms called
    Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD)
  98. What are 5 symptoms seen in cats with heartworms
    • malaise (feeling discomfort)
    • chronic respiratory tachypnea
    • intermittent coughing
    • gagging
    • rapid breathing
  99. When a adult heartworm dies and gets trapped in the pulmonary artery resulting in hypoxia and death. Death is due to
    Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE)
  100. What are the earliest detection times for heartworms in cats
    Antibody test:
    Antigen test:
    • 2 months
    • 6 months if enough females are present
    • 4 - 6 months
    • 6 months
  101. 4 symptomatology for a cat with heartworms
    • Eosinophilius
    • Lymphopenia
    • Elevated pulse rate
    • thrombocytopenia
  102. term for the symptom characteristic of a medical condition or exhibited by the patient
Card Set
Parasitology - Heartworms
para internal