How is culture defined and what are some ways it can be seen? Unseen?
- Culture affects how people value, evaluate, and categorize life experiences.
- The members of a cultural group share values and ways of thinking and acting.
- These values and ways of thinking and acting are different from those of people who are outside the group.
- Culture has both visible (easily seen) and invisible (less observable) components. The invisible value-belief system of a particular culture is often the major driving force behind visible practices. For example, although an Apostolic Pentecostal woman can be identified by her long hair, no makeup, and the wearing of a skirt or dress, nurses cannot appreciate the meanings and beliefs associated with her appearance without further assessment. Apostolic Pentecostals believe that a woman's hair is her glory and should never be cut. Likewise, they believe that men and women need to dress differently and women need to be modest (wearing no makeup). These outward signs symbolize their belief in the scriptural definition of womanhood. Cutting a woman's hair without consent of the individual or her family is sacrilegious and violates the ethnoreligious identity of the person. On the other hand, a woman of another faith who wears her hair long does not attach meaning to the length of her hair but wears it long because of a fashion preference.
What is the difference between ethnicity and race?
- Ethnicity Defined: Members of an ethnic group feel a common sense of identity.
- Ethnic identity is based on the language, geographic area, racial characteristics, and values of the groups heritage.
- Race: is a group of populations that share some biological characteristics
.These populations differ from other groups of populations according to these characteristics. Ethnicity is different from race, which is limited to the common biological attributes shared by a group such as skin color. Examples of racial classifications include Asian and Caucasian.
How might ethnicity and race overlap?
My answer: People from different races an belong to the same ethnicity and people of different ethnicities can be the same race. Eg Jamaicans are white, black, Asian. Also you ca have black Americans, Jamaican, Canadians
What creates cultural conflicts?
Cultural groups transmit their values, morals, and norms from one generation to another, which predisposes members to ethnocentrism, a tendency to hold one's own way of life as superior to others. Ethnocentrism is the cause of biases and prejudices that associate negative permanent characteristics with people who are different from the valued group. When a person acts on these prejudices, discrimination occurs.
Name the components of a cultural assessment.
- Family structure
- Ethnic heritage & ethnohistory: knowledge of pts origin and its history and ecological contexts are significant to health care
- Bicultural effects on health: Identify patients health risks related to sociocultural and biological history on admission. Some distinct health risks are the result of the ecological context of the culture. For example, immigrants originating from the region near the Nile River are generally at risk for parasitic infestations that are prevalent in that area.
- Social organization: In the dominant American society the most common unit of social organization is the nuclear family
In collectivistic cultures families are made up of distant blood relatives across three generations and fictive or nonblood kin. Kinship extends to both the father's and mother's side of the family (bilineal) or is limited to the side of either father (patrilineal) or mother (matrilineal)
- Religious & spiritual beliefs: Religious and spiritual beliefs frequently influence the patient's worldview about health and illness, pain and suffering, and life and death. Determine the patient's religious and spiritual beliefs and their effect on health care during admission.
- Foods with cultural significance: Many foods have cultural significance and are adopted for traditional celebrations, medicinal purposes, and general nutritional health.
- Communication patterns: Cultural groups have distinct linguistic and communication patterns. These patterns reflect core cultural values of a society. In the dominant American culture that supports individualism, people value assertive communication because it manifests the ideal of individual autonomy and self-determination.
- Time orientation
Identify nursing assessment questions related to culture and ethnicity.
- Types of questions and question topics:
- Open-ended or focused
- Social organization
- Socioeconomic status
- Bicultural ecology and health risks
- Language and communication
- Caring beliefs and practices
- What do you think caused your illness?
- How do you want us to help you with your problem?
- Did you have this problem before?
- Is there someone you want us to talk to about your care?
- How different is this problem from the one you had previously?
- What is the difference between what we are doing and what you think we should be doing for you?
- How long have you/your parents resided in this country?
- What is your ethnic background or ancestry?
- How strongly does your culture influence you?
- Tell me why you left your homeland.
- Social Organization
- Who lives with you?
- Whom do you consider members of your family?
- Where do other members of your family live?
- Who makes the decisions for you or your family?
- To whom do you go outside of your family for support?
- What expectations do you have of your family members who are males, females, old, or young?
- Socioeconomic Status
- What do you do for a living?
- How different is your life here from back home?
- Bicultural Ecology and Health Risks
- What caused your problem?
- How does this problem affect or how has it affected your life and your family?
- How do you treat this problem at home?
- What other problems do you have?
- Language and Communication
- What language(s) do you speak at home?
- What language(s) do you use to read and write?
- How should we address you or what should we call you?
- What kinds of communication upset or offend you?
- Caring Beliefs and Practices
- What do you do to keep yourself well? What do you do to show someone you care?
- How do you take care of sick family members?
- Which caregivers do you seek when you are sick?
- How different is what we do from what your family does for you when you are sick?
What nursing decision and action modes achieve culturally congruent care?
- 1 Cultural care preservation or maintenance Retain and/or preserve relevant care values so patients maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death.
- 2 Cultural care accommodation or negotiation Adapt or negotiate with others for a beneficial or satisfying health outcome.
- 3 Cultural care repatterning or restructuring Reorder, change, or greatly modify patients lifestyles for a new, different, and beneficial health care pattern.
- Nurses are able to use any or all of these action modes simultaneously.
If a nurse is going to practice culturally sensitive care, why should he/she examine his or her own ethnocentrism?
Ethnocentrism is the cause of biases and prejudices that associate negative permanent characteristics with people who are different from the valued group.