REL-2320: Buddhism

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  1. Siddhartha
    name for Buddha; "one who has reached one's goal"
  2. Gautoma
    name for Buddha; "most excellent cow"
  3. Sakyamuni
    name for Buddha; "Sakya": the Buddha's clan name; "muni": "the silent sage", "the silent sage of the Sakya clan"
  4. Tathagata
    name for Buddha; "the thus come one" -- and honorific title
  5. Dharma
    Buddha's teachings about the truths and laws of reality
  6. dharma
    81 "darmas"; elements of existence that combine in different ways to form all things; conditioned by the three marks of existence, excluding Nirvana
  7. Sangha
    community of followers to Buddha; made of monks, nuns, and lay (laity) followers; monks and nuns are supported by the lay followers with food and supplies
  8. Triple Refuge
    ritual into a Buddhist Sangha where one pledges to the Three Jewels/Treasures
  9. Maya
    the Buddha's mother
  10. Suddhodana
    Buddha's father; ruler of a kingdom in North India; of the kshatriya (warrior/politician) caste
  11. Kshatriya
    warrior/politician caste; Buddha's family's caste
  12. Yasodhara
    Buddha's wife
  13. Rakula
    Buddha's son; "a tie, bind, restraint"
  14. Four Passing Sights
    old man, diseased man, dead man, and a forest ascetic; motivated Buddha' to leave society and enter the forest to embark on Buddha's "Great Going Forth"
  15. The Great Going Forth
    Buddha's initial embarking from his family into the forest to seek enlightment
  16. The Path of Indulgence
    the first phase of Buddha's path to enlightenment; Buddha's princely life of luxury and pleasures; left this life after seeing The Four Sights
  17. The Middle Way
    Buddha's third phase to enlightenment; path of moderation between two earlier phases of indulgence and self-mutilation; sat under the Bodhi tree until he reached enlightenment
  18. Bodhgaya
    place of Buddha's enlightenment; a Bodhi tree in Gaya
  19. Mara
    "death-causer"; purpose is to keep people trapped in samsara; tempted Buddha on his path to enlightenment with "Three Temptations"
  20. The Three Temptations
    Mara's three daughters (sexual desire), Mara's army of ghosts and ghouls (fear), and Mara himself appeared and questioned Buddha's capacity to reach enlightenment (self-doubt)
  21. Deer Park
    place of Buddha's first sermon; located in Sarnath; there he "turned the wheel of the Dharma"
  22. Four Noble Truths
    "suffering" (dukkha); "craving desire" (tanha); by eliminating tanha (desires), you eliminate dukkha (suffering); the Noble Eightfold Path
  23. Monastic Buddhists
    embody the value of detachment (Third Noble Truth); they detach themselves from family, friends, and society
  24. Nirvana
    ultimate religious goal in Buddhism; complete end of suffering; liberation from samsara
  25. The Eightfold Path
    (1) Right Knowledge, (2) Right Intention, (3) Right Speech, (4) Right Action, (5) Right Livelihood/Work, (6) Right Effort, (7) Right Mindfulness/Meditation, (8) Right Absorption
  26. vinaya
    moral code of conduct for Buddhists
  27. Dharana
    "concentration" step in Raja Yoga; steadying the mind on one object of meditation to block everything else and achieve single-minded concentration
  28. Dhyana
    "meditation"; step in Raja Yoga; one's concentration profoundly deepens to the point that the idea of a subject viewing the object falls away
  29. Samadhi
    "nondual or undifferentiated consciousness"; step in Raja Yoga; one's sense of being is separate and all other things fall away
  30. Buddhaghosa
    highly influential 400's CE Indian Theravada Buddhist; regarded as "systemizer" of Theravada teachings; composed the "Path of Purification"
  31. Path of Purification
    outlined how to progress through Noble Eightfold Path, starting with sila ("morality") division (3-5), then samadhi ("concentration/meditation") division (6-8), and the prajna ("wisdom") division (1-2)
  32. Three Marks of Existence
    Suffering ("dukkha"), Impermenance (anitya-Skt./anicca-Pali, No-Self (anatman-Skt./anatta-Pali)
  33. Five Aggregates (skandhas)
    Form, Sensations, Perceptions/conceptions/ Volitions/intentions, Consciousness; Buddha's definition of what we are
  34. Theravada
    "Lesser Vehicle"; aim to achieve enlightenment firsthand through the Buddha's Dharma through meditation; ideal being is the Arhat
  35. Arhat
    "worthy one"; religious status Theravada Buddhists seek to reach; an enlightened and free form of existence free from all ignorance, moral defilements, and stops producing karma
  36. Mahayana
    "Greater Vehicle"; seek enlightenment and Bodhisattva
  37. Bodhisattva
    "enlightened being"; religious status Mahayana Buddhists seek to reach; enlightened being who could enter nirvana, but voluntarily chooses to keep being reborn in samsara to assist all beings in achieving enlightenment; cultivate and practice the Six Perfections
  38. Six Perfections (paramitas)
    giving, mortality, patience, energy, meditation, and wisdom
  39. Maitreya
    the future Buddha or Buddha-in-waiting bodhisattva
  40. Manjushri
    bodhisattva of wisdom
  41. Avalokitesvara
    the bodhisattva of compassion
  42. Dalai Lama
    "ocean superior-one"; 14th bodhisattva Avalokitesvara reincarnation; spiritual and political leader of Tibet
  43. Trikaya
    "Three Body" Doctrine of Buddhahood: Nirmana-kaya, Sambhoga-kaya, Dharma-kaya
  44. Nirmana-kaya
    "Transformation" or "Manifiestion Body" of Buddhahood; Buddha as a historical person
  45. Sambhoga-kaya
    Buddhahood as celestial being(s); celestial beings reside in "Pure Lands"; Amitabha is the most well-known celestial being
  46. Pure Lands
    land of free of defilements, distractions, and the living Buddha teaches there; some believe enlightenment is no longer possible in this ordinary world so they seek to be reincarnated in the Pure Lands
  47. Amida
    Japanese Pure Land Buddha; Japanese Pure Land Buddhists seek to be reborn in Amida's Pure Land through faith and saving grace of Amida; practice nembutsu to show faith
  48. Nembutsu
    nem: "to call to mind", "to be mindful of"; butsu: [Amida] "buddha"; practice Honen and self-power (repetitive chants for karma) or Shinran and Other-power (only one sincere chant necessary for rebirth in Amida's Pure Land)
  49. Dharma-kaya
    "Truth Body" or "Body of Reality"; Buddhahood as a abstract and universal principle present in all things; personified through Mahavairocana (Great Sun Buddha or Great Cosmic Buddha)
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REL-2320: Buddhism
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