1. ... are areas where one ethnic or racial group dominated.
  2. 4 reasons why the US received millions of immigrants from around the world.
    • 1- Many people went to the USA hoping for a better life with more economic opportunities.
    • 2- The US offered a possibility for farmers to obtain free land and workers to find jobs.
    • 3- To escape religious oppression or even genocide.
    • 4- People could participate in democratic elections.
  3. Nativism is...
    ...hostility from native-born Americans.
  4. Which act banned Chinese immigration for many years?
    Chinese Exclusion Act of 1892.
  5. E Pluribus Unum means...
    ..."Out of many, one."
  6. 5 characteristics of the tenements.
    • 1- Tenements were low cost apartment buildings.
    • 2- Often possessed little illumination.
    • 3- Often possessed insufficient air.
    • 4- Tenements were overcrowding.
    • 5- Unsanitary.
  7. *Bosses helped people by...
    **In return, they received...
    • *...finding jobs, paying for funerals, buying medicine, providing food baskets, etc.
    • **...loyal voter support.
  8. The _____ in New York was the most notorious example of a corrupt machine.
    Tweed Ring.
  9. Who was the leader of Tammany Hall?
    What was Tammany Hall?
    • The leader was Boss Tweed.
    • Tammany Hall was the local Democratic Party organization.
    • Obs.: this group almost bankrupted the city before it was removed from power.
  10. Andrew Carnegie social theory, the Gospel Wealth, said ....
    ... the rich had a responsibility to help the poor in their communities gain better lives.
  11. ... were centers that provided various services to the poor.
    Settlement houses.
  12. Define muckrakers.
    They were journalists that alerted the public to the corrupt practices of some businessmen and politicians. Ex.: The book The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair.
  13. Progressives proposed two new models of city government:
    • 1) the city commission- a panel or board of five citizens that is elected to administer the city;
    • 2) a city manager- a technical expert, contracted by the city commission to help in the administration of the city;
  14. Progressives implemented 4 reform, they were:
    The initiative, the direct primary system, the referendum and the recall.
  15. Explain why the Sixteenth and the Seventeenth Amendment affected the action of the federal government.
    • the 16: authorized Congress to collect a federal income tax.
    • the 17: stipulated that senators be elected by the people, not selected by state legislatures.
  16. By 1912, the ... had won 1000 government offices.
    Socialist Party of America.
  17. What was the Columbian Exchange?
    • Europeans brought for the Americas food products, domestic animals and diseases. 
    • The Americas provided exciting new foods for the europeans, such as the potato, that saved the famine.
  18. In 1607, the first British colonists arrived in North America and established a colony in _______,__.
    Jamestown, Virginia.
  19. French and Indian War.
    • Was fought to decide who would be the strongest power in the US.
    • England vs. France.
    • The British won.
  20. Sugar Act.
    Places taxes on sugar, coffee, wine, and other products exported to America.
  21. Stamp Act.
    Colonists had to buy a British stamp for every piece of printed-paper they used.
  22. Boston Massacre.
    In 1770, five colonists in Boston were killed while protesting the taxes.
  23. Boston Tea Party.
    Colonists in Boston dressed up as American Indians and destroyed a cargo of British tea.
  24. When was the declaration of independence?
    July 4, 1776.
  25. Who wrote the Declaration of Indepencende?
    Thomas Jefferson.
  26. The declaration of independence expands the ideas of...
    ...John Locke.
  27. Who were the Founding Fathers?
    The men who signed the Declaration of Independence, helped to write the Constitution or win the American Revolutionary War.
  28. What were the problems with the Articles of Confederation?
    • The national government possessed very little power.
    • There was not a president or federal courts.
    • The Congress was very weak.
  29. "That political document created America's system of government and recognized the rights of its citizens." Of what document are we talking about?
    The Constitution of the United States.
  30. What are the three first words of the Constitution?
    "We the People."
  31. What are the three branches of government.
    Legislative, executive, judicial.
  32. What is the system of checks and balances?
    It gives each branch of government the power to check, or stop, the other branches in certain ways.
  33. What does the Bill of Rights guarantee?
    That Americans have basic rights.
  34. Who was the first president of the US?
    George Washington.
  35. Who purchased Louisiana?
    Thomas Jefferson.
  36. War of 1812.
    • It started because of British aggressions against American ships and its efforts to encourage revolts by Native Americans.
    • It reinforced Americans views of nationalism.
  37. What did the Monroe Doctrine establish?
    That no european power should try to establish or regain any colony in the Americas.
  38. What is Alexis de Tocqueville's book called?
    Democracy in America.
  39. What are the five values identified by Alexis de Tocqueville in his book?
    • Liberty
    • Egalitarianism
    • Individualism
    • Populism
    • Laissez Faire
  40. Who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"?
    Harriet Beecher Stowe.
  41. Who was Frederick Douglass?
    • A powerful voice in the abolitionist movement.
    • A persuasive orator.
  42. Who wrote the book "Walden"?
    Henry David Thoreau.
  43. Compromise of 1850.
    • Admitted California as a free state.
    • Reduced the north-south tensions, but satisfied neither side.
  44. The battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg were...
    Northern victories that marked the turning point of the Civil War.
  45. What did the Thirteenth Amendment establish?
    It prohibited any form of slavery and gave slaves their freedom.
  46. What was the Reconstruction?
    The plan to reconstruct the South and reunite the country after the war.
  47. Was the principal commander of the Confederate Army.
    General Robert E. Lee.
  48. Lost his freedom in a Supreme Court decision.
    Dred Scott.
  49. Who was Jefferson Davis?
    The president of the Confederate States of America.
  50. Lincoln's Gettysburg Adress reminded the nation that the purpose of the Civil War was to...
    ...ensure that freedom and democracy should continue to exist in the United States.
  51. When President Lincoln was elected, Southeners...
    ...feared he would abolish slavery.
  52. When did the Civil War begin?
    When the Confederates attacked Fort Sumter.
  53. Who was more developed? The North or the South?
    The North.
  54. Freedmen's Bureau.
    Was formed in 1865 to provide food, clothes and medical assistance to the poor people on the South.
  55. What were the Black Codes?
    Laws that limited the freedom of black people.
  56. The Fourteenth Amendment...
    • ...permitted all ex-slaves to become citizens of the US.
    • It did not give them the right to vote.
    • President Johnson opposed it.
  57. Reconstruction Act of 1867.
    • Imposed military rule on the South.
    • Took away voting privileges from ex-confederates.
    • Established strict requirements to the readmission of the Confederate States to the Union.
  58. What did the Fifteenth Amendment do?
    It ensured the right to vote for black people.
  59. Who was Hiram Revels?
    He was the first black man to be elected to the US Senate.
  60. Define sharecropping.
    • It was an agricultural system where a landowner permits a person to use the land in return for a portion of the crop.
    • The landowner provided seeds, equipment and housing in exchange for work.
  61. What was the Ku Klux Klan?
    • A secret organization created to frighten African Americans and their white supporters.
    • Created by white Southeners.
  62. What was the Compromise of 1877?
    • If Rutherford B. Hayes agreed to remove army troops from the South, he would become president.
    • It resulted in the end of Reconstruction.
  63. What were the Jim Crow Laws?
    Segregation laws, that separated blacks and whites in all public places.
  64. What did the Supreme Court state about the Jim Crow Laws?
    It was a legal act, as long as conditions were equal for both sides.
  65. The production of steel in large amounts was made possible thanks to this.
    Bessemer process.
  66. What was steel used for?
    • Railroads
    • Civil Construction
  67. What were some contributions of Thomas Edison?
    • Light bulb;
    • Phonograph;
    • Central power station.
  68. What did Samuel F. B. Morse invent?
    • A machine that could send electronic signals over a wire.
    • A code of short and long impulses to represent the letters.
    • The telegraph.
  69. Alexander Graham Bell invented the...
  70. What is Vertical Integration?
    It is when you integrate all the phases of production.
  71. An example of person who used Vertical Integration?
    Andrew Carnegie.
  72. What is Horizontal Integration?
    Expanding in one area of production and controlling it.
  73. Who implemented Horizontal Integration?
    John D. Rockefeller.
  74. Interstate Commerce Commision (ICC)
    Was created to guarantee that railroads charged fair prices.
  75. Sherman Antitrust Act
    Prevented a trust or company from monopolizing any part of trade or commerce.
  76. Sweatshops
    Workplaces with poor ventilation and excessive heat.
  77. What were the objectives of labor unions?
    • End the child labor.
    • Equal pay for equal work.
    • 8-hour workday.
  78. Who was the leader of the AFL?
    Samuel Gompers.
  79. What was AFL's strategy to achieve its goals?
    It used strikes and boycotts.
  80. What did the Homestead Act propose?
    Each man could have 65 hectares of land. If he built a home there and farmed it for five years, the land would be his.
  81. What were Reservations?
    Federal lands designed for Native Americans to live in.
  82. what is recall?
    Voters can remove elected officials from office.
  83. What is initiative?
    Gave people the power to propose a new law to appear directly on the ballot for voters to decide or deject.
  84. .... a public vote on a law proposed by state legislature.
    The referendum.
  85. Direct primaries...
    ... voters select their party's candidates.
  86. Who used to carry a small axe into bars and destroy them?
    Carrie Nation.
  87. Supporters of ... also argued that banning alcohol would make the country more efficient.
  88. who founded the National Woman Suffrage Association?
    Susan B. Anthony.
  89. What was the strongest reason for suffragettes?
    Was equal right of men and women.
  90. Nineteenth Amendment.
    Gave women the right to vote, in 1920.
  91. Roosevelt  initiate the greatest reform movement in the history of U.S: the...
    Progressive Era.
  92. Roosevelt called his government plan to treat people fairly...
    a Square Deal.
  93. Conservation is...
    ... preserving and using wisely the nation's natural resources, was another important topic with the Progressives Presidents.
  94. Who Roosevelt personally select his successor?
    William H. Taft.
  95. .... plan to govern was called the New Freedom program.
    Woodrow Wilson.
  96. Federal Reserve Act of 1913.
    Established Federal Reserve Banks to monitor the economy.
  97. Which Act Wilson supported to protect children?
    Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916.
  98. Suffragette organization that became powerful political force.
  99. Under ..., stronger countries try to dominate weaker ones.
  100. Who said: "the trade of the world must and shall be ours"?
    Captain Alfred Mahan.
  101. Who wanted Hawaii to become America territory?
    Sanford Dole.
  102. When USA annexed Hawaii?
    In 1894.
  103. On April 25,1898, the United States declared war on...
  104. Roosevelt had left the government and organized a diverse group of volunteers to the Spanish-American War. He called this group the...
    Rough Riders.
  105. In the treaty with Spain that followed the war, the U.S. gained control of the ex-Spanish colonies of...,... and ... together with the hegemony or domination of the Western Hemisphere.
    Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
  106. ...hated all foreign influence in China.
  107. ... called for all nation to have equal trading right with China.
    Open Door Policy.
  108. What is sphere of influence?
    Countries asserting their powers in foreign territories like China.
  109. The United States acquired a concession. What is concession?
    When a land is given in return for a promise to use the land to a specific purpose, in the case to build the canal in Panama.
  110. ... said that the USA would intervene in any Latin America country whose stability was at risk.
    Roosevelt Corollary.
  111. Taft believed in "dollar diplomacy", meaning...
    American banks and businesses should invest in Latin American to build local economies and maintain order.
Card Set
High School