Behavior Sciences

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  1. kinds of nerve cells in the nervous system
    sensory, motor and interneurons
  2. sensory neurons
    are afferent neurons transmit sensory info from receptors to spinal cord and brain
  3. motor neurons
    efferent neurons, transmit motor info from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
  4. interneurons
    • most numerous, found between other neurons.
    • mostly found in brain.
    • interneurons in spinal cord can send signals to muscles without going through brain
  5. antagonistic
    opposition to one another
  6. neurotransmitter responsible for parasympathetic responses
  7. meninges
    thick sheath of connective tissue that covers the brain
  8. meninges composed of three layers
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  9. brainstem
    • hindbrain and midbrain
    • more primitive
  10. limbic system
    group of neural structures developed later, associated with emotion and memory
  11. cerebral cortex
    the most recent evolutionary development of the brain (part of forebrain)
  12. medulla oblongata
    lower brain structure for regulating vial functions
  13. pons
    lies above the medulla and contains sensory and motor pathways between cortex and medulla
  14. cerebellum
    maintain posture and balance and coordinates body movements
  15. inferior colliculus
    • receives sensory info from auditory system
    • in midbrain
  16. superior colliculus
    receives visual sensory input
  17. neuropsychology
    study of functions and behaviors associated with specific regions of the brain
  18. what can stimulate a patient's cortex causing neurons to fire?
    • electrodes
    • cortical maps of brain from electrical stimulation
  19. elecroencephalogram (EEG)
    electrical activity measured by inserting ultrasensitive microelectrodes into individual brain cells
  20. regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)
    • detects neural activity based on increase in blood flow.
    • assume that certain regions of the brain activated with increased blood flow
  21. thalamus
    forebrain structure responsible for receiving sensory (except smell), sorting and transmitting info to the cerebral cortex
  22. hypothalamus
    • homeostatic functions (metabolism, temp, and water balance)
    • primary regulator of ANS
    • links the endocrine and nervous systems
    • regulates hormonal function of pituitary gland
  23. lateral hypothalamus (LH)
    • hunger center, filled with receptors that tells body it needs more food or fluid
    • (Lacks Hunger when destroyed)
  24. ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
    • satiety center, stop eating signal
    • Very Much Hungry when destroyed
  25. anterior hypothalamus
    • control sexual behavior
    • Asexual when destroyed
  26. four F of hypothalamus
    • feeding
    • fighting
    • flighting
    • functioning (sexual)
  27. posterior pituitary
    axonal projections from the hypothalamus and site of release for hypothalamic hormones ADH and oxytocin
  28. pineal gland
    • secretes melatonin
    • receives direct signals form retina for coordination with sunlight
  29. diencephalon (forebrain)
    differentiates to form thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland and connecting pathways to other brain regions.
  30. basal ganglia
    coordinate muscle movement as they receive info from cortex and relay this info to brain and spinal cord
  31. extrapyramidal motor system
    gathers info about body position and carries this info to CNS
  32. parkinson's disease
    • destruction to basal ganglia
    • jerky movements and uncontrolled resting tremors
  33. limbic system
    • loops around brain and associated with emotion and memory
    • consists of septal nuclei, amygdala and hippocampus
  34. septal nuclei
    primary pleasure centers, linked to addictive behavior
  35. amygdala
    • defensive and aggressive behaviors
    • when damaged, aggression and fear reactions are reduced
  36. hippocampus
    learning and memory processes
  37. fornix
    hippocampus communicates with other portions of the limbic system through long projection
  38. anterograde amnesia
    not able to establish new long term memories, memory for events that occurred before brain injury is intact.
  39. retrograde amnesia
    memory loss of events that transpired before brain injury
  40. gyri and sulci
    bumps and folds respectively in the cerebral cortex
  41. lobes of the brain
    • F-POT
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
  42. frontal lobe
    • consists of prefrontal cortex (executive function-wake up, remember this, regulates alertness/attention)
    • motor cortex (initiates voluntary motor movements)
  43. association area
    area that integrates input from diverse brain regions like the prefrontal cortex
  44. projection area
    • perceptual or motor tasks, like receiving visual input or sending out motor commands to muscles
    • ex: primary motor cortex
    • somatosensory cortex
  45. primary motor cortex
    initiates voluntary motor movements by sending neural impulses down the spinal cord toward the muscles
  46. motor homunculus
    neurons in the motor cortex are arranged systematically acocording to parts of the body which they are connected.
  47. broca's area
    speech production
  48. parietal
    • somatosensory cortex involved in somatosensory info processing (destination for all touch, pressure, temp and pain signals)
    • spatial processing and manipulation (map reading, orient oneself)
  49. occipital lobe
    • very rear of the brain
    • vision
  50. temporal lobe
    • auditory cortex
    • wernicke's area (language reception and comprehension)
  51. acetylcholine
    • NT used by efferent limb of the Somatic Nervous system part of PNS (transmit nerve impules to muscles)
    • used by some parts of brain for arousal and attention
  52. catecholamines
    ephinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, all play roles in experience of emotions
  53. primary NT of Sympathetic nervous system
    • epinephrine and noepinephrine (released by adrenal medulla)
    • promote fight or flight
    • epinephrine acts systematically as a hormone, noepinephrine acts locally.
  54. dopamine
    movement and posture
  55. GABA
    hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane
  56. endorphins
    natural pain killers produced in the brain, peptide neurotransmitters
  57. anterior pituitary
    • Master, releases hormones that regulate the
    • activities of endocrine glands
    • part of pituitary gland located at base of brain
  58. adrenal glands
    located at top of kidneys and are divided into adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
  59. adrenal cortex
    • produces corticosteroids
    • produces also testosterone and estrogen
  60. hypophyseal portal system
    connects the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
  61. neural tube
    • forms the CNS
    • formed from furrowing of the ectoderm
    • has alar plate (sensory neurons)
    • basal plate (motor neurons)
  62. placenta
    transmits food, oxygen, and water to the fetus, while returning water and waste to the mother
  63. umbilical cord
    attaches fetus to uterine wall and palcenta.
  64. rooting reflex
    automatic turning of the head in direction of stimulus that touches the cheek, such as nipple during feeding.
  65. moro reflex
    infants react to abrupt movements of their heads by flinging out their arms, then slowing retreating their arms and crying
  66. babinski reflex
    toes to spread apart automatically when sole of foot is stimulated.
  67. parallel play, selfish
    at two years of age, children will play alongside each other without influencing each other's behavior.
  68. stranger anxiety, solitary play
    7 months
  69. separation anxiety, onlooker play
    1 year
  70. gender specific play
    3 yrs
  71. same sex friend circles
  72. conformity to peers
    5 years
  73. reflex arcs
    ability of interneurons to relay information to source of stimuli while simultaneously routing it to the brain
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Behavior Sciences
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