what are four differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
- prokaryotes have:
- no nucleus
- no organelles
- have binary fission
- have electron transport chains embedded in their cell membranes
what are the three major cell shapes of prokarytoes?
the arrangement of spherical bacteria can be paired ______, in chains _____, in groups of four _______, in groups of eight _______, or in grape-like clusters ______
curved bacteria can be comma-shaped ______, corkscrew-shaped _____, or way _______
the shape of a bacteria is determined by the shapes of its ______.
sticky secretions produced by bacteria cover the outer surface of the bacteria. theis i the glycocalyx. if the gylcocalyx is organized and adherent it is called the _______. if it is unorganized and loosely adherent it is a ______.
the organized glycocalyx covers up the recognition signals of the bacteria. what is the significance of this?
protects from immune cells > increases virulence
a timulus in the eniroment may cause the bacteria to move toward it or away from it. if the bacteria moves toward it, this is called ______.
the flagella of bacteria produce an erratic, whip-like motion. the flagella of eukaryotes produce a smooth, wave like motion. what causes the difference?
the flagella of eukaryotes are organelles. the flagella of porkaryotes are not, because ______.
what are fimbriae?
short, stiff projections that help in sticking to surfaces
what are pili?
long tubes that can attach to another bacteria
the primary function of bacterial cell wall is ______.
counter osmotic pressure
what are the differences between gram+ and gram- cell walls?
- gram +: more layers of peptidoglycan
- gram -: membrane outside of peptidoglycan
what is endotoxin?
- the lipid portion of a molecule embedded in the outer gram negative membrane
- released at death
- that hyper stimulates the immune system