SPRM Questions

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  1. Accelerate-Go Distance
    Distance to Reach CEF, Have and engine failure and continue to Rotate and Liftoff
  2. Accelerate-Stop Distance
    Distance to Accelerate to CEF, lose and engine and commence deceleration at V1 to a stop
  3. Climb-Limited T/O Weight
    Max weight to maintain a 2.5% climb at V2 with one engine inop, flaps at the takeoff position and gear retracted.
  4. Containimated Runway
    • 25% covered by either
    • a. Standing water, slush or snow 1/8"thick
    • b. Snow compressed into a solid mass
    • c. Ice of any type
  5. *CFL Definition
    Sum distances required to accellerate to CEF, experience an engine failure of the critical engine, then either accelerate to liftoff speed or decelerate to a stop, whichever is higher.
  6. *CFL factors
    • altitude
    • temperature
    • Brake Release Gross Weight
    • Configurations
    • Runway Condition
    • Thrust Setting
  7. *CFL Assumptions
    • After engine failure a/c continues to accelerate for 3 seconds with operative engine at T/O Thrust and inop engine at drag level for most critical engine failure condition. Instant loss of thrust for Accelerate-Go and Slow spooldown for accelerate stop.
    • No action to increase thrust for accelerate-go
    • Immediate brake application at V1 for acc-stop with MBE observed.
    • At V1 thrust reduced and spoilers deployed to acc-stop.
    • No Reverse Trust
  8. Takeoff Surface
    Total takoff runway available including displaced threshold and stopway used for performance calculations. All shall be considered for runways condition.
  9. Improved Climb
    An increase in V2 that results in an increased climb gradient or CLTOW for a given flap setting and CG. VR and V1 are also higher.Based on speed units in tables equal to 1% of reference stall speed based on 737NG tests. Increases in takoeff speeds are not equal or proportional and vary in magnitude and by a/c
  10. Slippery Runway
    • A Runway not contaminated but with a Braking action of Medium or Poor.
    • Usually found after chemical deicing of runway or in certain cold high humidity conditions.
    • No Takeoff data is provided and crews should wait till good breaking is reported.
  11. Total Takeoff Distance
    Sum of distances required to experience a failure at CEF, Takeoff and climb to 50ft
  12. V1, Decision Speed
    • The maximum airspeed at which the pilot must commit to stopping of continuing the T/O to remain withing the CFL.
    • V1 is 3 secs after CEF in conditions described in CFL. V1 cannot exceed Vmbe or VR.
    • A balanced V1 is associated with a balanced CFL.
  13. V2 - Obstacle Clearance Speed
    • Flight path speed with landing gear extended at which a/c reaches 50ft above airfield height during climbout for a specified altitude, temperature, weight and configuration. Cannot be less than:
    • 113% of out of ground effect Power-off stall speed in the takeoff configuration
    • 110% of Vmca
    • Minimum speed for 2.5% Climb at CLGW configuration.
  14. Vcef
    The speed during T/O run at which an engine can fail and the same distance is required to liftoff of stop for a specified altitude, temperature, weight, configuration and thrust. Not less than Vmcg
  15. Vlo
    • Speed at which the a/c leaves the ground for a specified altitude, temperature, weight and configuration. It is the highest of:
    • 110% Power off stall speed out of ground effect
    • 105% Vmca
    • 105% Vmcg
    • 105% Unstick speed
    • .5% climb gradient in T/O condition with the most critical engine out
    • Obtaining V2 at or before the sircraft clearsa height 50ft above the runway.
  16. Vmbe
    Max speed not exceeding designed brake absorption for a given altitude, temperature, weight and configuration.
  17. Vmbe limited takeoff distance
    the CFL that results from a V1 limited by Vmbe. Increases accelerate-go distance increasing CFL
  18. Vmca
    • Min speed to recover to level flight with critical engine failure given:
    • Full rudder and 5 degrees AOB
    • Rudder force not more than 180lbs
    • Less than 20 degrees course change during recovery
    • Max T/O thrust with bleeds off
    • Most unfavorable CG
    • Most critical engine and flaps setting
    • Airplane trimmed for T/O or landing
    • Roll control less than 75% of maximum avilable
  19. Vmcg
    • Min speed on ground at which it is possible to recover and complete a takeoff with a failure of the most critical engine given:
    • Only aero forces used to steer
    • Max deviation 30ft
    • Rudder force not to exceed 180lbs
    • Max thrust with bleed air off
    • Most unfavorable CG
    • Most critical engine and flap settings.
    • A/c Trimmed for T/O
  20. Vmcg limited Takeoff Distance
    Increases Vcef to Vmcg. Increases Accelerate stop distance
  21. Vmu - Min unstick speed
    Cal Airspeed at and above which the airplane safely lift off the ground and continue the takeoff. Determined by the in ground effect lift coefficient in the takeoff configuration, power on, for the max angle of attack allowable with the main landing gear oleo in the static position with the a/c on the ground.
  22. Vr - Rotation Speed
    • The speed at which body rotation from ground run attitude to the liftoff attitude for a specified altitude, temperature, weight and configuration. Cannot be less than:
    • Min speed for controls to generate rotation
    • V1
    • 1.05 Vmca
    • Vr resulting in VLOF 1.05Vmu engine out or 1.10 all engine
    • Vr resulting in V2 50 feet after engine failure at CEF
    • Vs 1g Power-off stall based on CLmax all engines
  23. T/O Performance factors (8)
    • weight
    • Temp
    • Pressure alt
    • Thrust
    • Wind
    • Slope
    • RCR
    • Reverse Thrust
  24. Dry Runway requirements if not "Dry"
    • Not contaminated
    • Does not have a shiny appearance nor falling raint at time of T/O
    • RCR not less than 23 if reported
    • No reported breaking action
  25. Runway considered wet for T/O if
    • Not contaminated
    • RCR not less than 18 if reported
    • Braking action not less than good if reported
  26. Tailwind to use for Perf Calculations
    • Largest of:
    • tailwing+ 5
    • 150% tailwind
    • 100% of gust
  27. Gusty Headwind to use for T/O perf
    • Steady State winds - gust component¬†
    • adjusted with cos to headwind component
  28. Flap setting effect on T/O
    Higher flaps reduces CFL but also reduces CLGW
  29. IC Considerations
    • Used in strong gusty winds or potential for windshear exists.
    • Lowest flap setting satisfying CLF shall be used first.
    • Engine Bleed off Procedures SHOULD be used first.
  30. IC Limitations (Requirements)
    • Anti-skid SHALL be operative
    • Runway not covered in snow, slush, ice or standing water.
    • Takeoff with a tailwind is PROHIBITED
    • Max thrust at 27k SHALL be used
  31. Obstacle Clearance Assumptions
    • Failure at CEF, liftoff at CFL, 50ft at 2650 beyond liftoff, 2.5 % up to acceleration height.
    • If no obstacles penetrate = good
    • If they do but can be avoided in VMC = good
    • otherwise must reassess.
  32. MBE considerations
    • OAT
    • Gross Weight
    • Speed at Application (ground)
  33. High Brake Energy Considerations
    • Over 30 million ftlbs of corrected energy
    • Clear the runway
    • notify maintenance
    • minimize wheel brakes
    • do not set the parking brake unless required
    • After an hour a wheel, brake and tire inspection is required
  34. Caution zone considerations
    • Fuse Plugs may still melt
    • Minimize taxi and get to an uncongested area or that suggested by crash/fire/rescue
    • use wheel brakes only as required
    • Chock the nosewheel or attach a tug
  35. Fuse Flug Melt Zone Considerations
    • Taxi only to clear the runway and only go to hot brake area if required by local directives
    • Do not approach the main gear for an hour
    • Chock or attach a tug to nosewheel
    • Component replacement may be necessary
  36. Climb Chart Assumptions
    • All engine 305 until Mach .75
    • Engine out 250 until .52
  37. Ceilings
    • 0FPM
    • 100
    • 300
    • 500
  38. Maneuver Capability Chart
    • Exist of Flaps 0,1,5,15
    • Provide 5% of buffet or stick shaker
    • gives radius, turn rate and aob max
  39. Flaps Bingo
    • Shall raise flaps at bingo Plan Bingo for 10k go home
    • Based on ZFW of 121,000
    • Must Add On Deck Fuel
  40. CLLW - Climb Limited Landing Weight
    • Function of
    • 2.5% Gradient
    • Gross Weight
    • Flap Setting
    • Gear Position
    • Altitude
    • Temperature
    • State of Anti-Ice
    • Drag Index
    • Calc from Vref or Vref+5 single engine
    • 8 Seconds after Go Around thrust for all Engines Operating
  41. Vtd - Touchdown Speed
    • 110% Power off stall speed
    • 105% Vmca Landing gear down
    • Power off tailstrike speed
  42. Ground Roll Parts
    Transition and Braking phase
  43. Landing Air Run Distance
    • Distance over 50ft obstacle to touchdown.
    • Landing config, specified thrust, weight and altitude
  44. Total Landing dist
    Gound + Air Run Distance
  45. Braking Action Reports Suggestion
    • Good - Normal
    • Medium - Action Noticeably Reduced
    • Poor - Minimal Braking action may have directional control issues
    • Nil - Any of no perceived decel from brakes, stowing reversers feels like accel, landing dist exceeds calc for poor, reversers have to be stowed to maintain directional control within crosswind limits
  46. Delayed Braking
    • Reversers used till 100kts, then add brakes.
    • Add 15% for wet
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