Domain 1

  1. What causes the crispness of vegetables/fruits?
    The osmotic pressure of water-filled vacuoles (also called a state of turgor).
  2. What amino acid is limiting (not availabe) in soybeans?
  3. What is the percentage of water in fruits and vegetables?
    75-93% water
  4. What other nutrients are in fruits/vegetables?
    Carbohydrates, minerals (calcium), vitamins C, A and some B
  5. What type of gas is released by the ripening of fruits during storage?
    Ethylene Gas
  6. What causes the ripening or chemical changes in fruits/vegetables?
  7. Why should berries and mushrooms be washed just before serving?
    They are very perishable and can fall apart easily.
  8. How can you prevent the darkening of fruits containing little vitamin C?
    Dip it in citrus juice, add sugar before freezing and heat to boiling.
  9. What causes the green pigmentation of fruits/vegetables?
  10. Which pigment is not soluble in water: anthocyanins, anthoxyanthins, carotenoids or chlorophylls?
    Chlorophylls and carotenoids
  11. What causes green pigmentation to turn olive green in color?
    An acid, pheophytin (can be produced by an acidic cooking environment or by prolonged cooking).
  12. Which pigments have little to no effect in acidic or akaline solutions?
    Carotenoids (yellow/orange)
  13. What color is chlorophyll in akaline solutions?
    Bright green due to chlorophyllin
  14. Antioxidants found in tomatoes and watermelon contain which pigment?
  15. Anthocyanins and Anthoxanthins are what type of pigments?
  16. Which pigments are soluble in water?
  17. Red, blue and purple pigments are found in which type of flavinoid: anthocyanins or anthoxanthins?
  18. Anthocyanins appear which color in acid solutions?
  19. Anthocyanins appear bluish in what type of solution?
    Alakaline solutions
  20. Anthoxanthins appear colorless in what type of solution?
  21. Anthoxanthins appear what color in alkaline solutions?
  22. When determining quality of fruits/vegetables what characteristics must be used in grading?
    Quality, firmness, color, maturity, freedom from defects, uniform in size and shape
  23. What are the grades used in canned fruits/vegetables?
    • Grade A (Fancy) used in desserts, salads
    • Grade B (Choice) used in processed foods
    • Grade C (Standard) used in puddings and pies
  24. What is the grading used in fresh produce?
    Fancy, Extra #1, #1, Combination, #2
  25. Who is responsible for the grading of fruits/vegetables?
  26. What occurs during the storing of potatoes during the ripening process?
    Starch will change to sugar during storage
  27. Old potatoes taste __________
    Sweeter due to change of starch to sugar
  28. When cooking old potatoes they turn a darker brown when cooked which is also called what?
    Maillard reaction
  29. What happens to the texture of potatoes as they age?
    They get softer
  30. When cooking potatoes which has the shortest cooking time: fresh or frozen?
    Frozen because the blanching/freezing process makes the potatoes more tender.
  31. How many cups is in a #10 can?
    13 cups
  32. Meat, poultry and fish have muscle tissue that is composed of what type of fibers?
  33. What type of tissue holds muscle fibers in bundles?
    Connective tissue
  34. Collagen is a structural part of the tendon that surrounds a muscle, what happens when collagen is heated?
    Collagen will hydrolyze (lose a water molecule) to gelatin, making it more tender.
  35. What type of protein found in muscle tissue is resistant to heat and can be found in ligaments, cartilage?
    elastin (appears yellow in color)
  36. The amount of fat cover on a meat carcass is called what?
    Finish (it is trimmed off before buying unless buying in bulk)
  37. What type of tissue is found around organs, muscles, and in muscles (also know as marbling)?
  38. What characteristic identifies the cut of meat?
    the shape of the bone
  39. What part of the body is a T-bone found?
    back and ribs
  40. What part of the body is a round bone found?
    Leg bone
  41. How much protein is found in meat, poultry and fish?
  42. What nutrients are found in meat, poultry, and fish?
    protein, fat, vitamins and minerals
  43. Name the vitamins and minerals found in meat, fish and poultry?
    thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, iron, copper and trace minerals
  44. Thiamin is prevalent in which type of meat?
  45. When cooking pork, avoid temperatures around 180-185 degrees F in order to avoid losing which vitamin?
  46. What is an optimal temperature for cooking pork and what temperature is pork safe to eat?
    325 degrees F cooking temperature and 150 degrees F is safe to eat
  47. Canned fish with bones, oysters and shrimp are high in what nutrient?
  48. Fish has ______ fat and ______ moisture than meat.

    C. less and more
  49. What is TVP?
    textured vegetable protein
  50. What is the benefit of mixing TVP to ground meats?
    It increases the number of servings and lowers the cost
  51. Soy protein is high in _____; adding juiciness.

    C. water
  52. What causes the pigmentation found in meat?
  53. Myoglobin + Oxygen can change meat color from:

    B. red to brown to green
  54. What causes the green coloring of meats?
    the breakdown of myoglobin
  55. What physical characteristic occurs as meat ages?
    It becomes more tender.
  56. Post-mortem changes in muscle protein brouch about by enzymes increases what in the muscle?
    water-holding capacity
  57. What other solution will increase the water-holding capacity of muscle and increase the tenderness?
    Vinegar or an acid
  58. An anaerobic, vacuum-packed meat that extends the storage life of meat is also called what?
    Sous vide
  59. The inspection and grading of meat is done by which organization?
  60. The __________ Act of 1967 assures the consumer that the animal was healthy at the time of slaughter and that it is fit for human consumption.
    Wholesome Meat Act of 1967
  61. Grading of meat indicates quality, what are the different grades of meat?
    • Prime
    • Choice
    • Select
    • Standard
  62. What are the characteristics that determine quality and grading of meats?
    maturity of the animal, marbling of fat, color and texture
  63. Which grade of meat has the most marbling and which has the least amount of marbling?

    B. prime, standard
  64. What type of meats are the most tender cuts?

    C. loin and backbone
  65. Medium tender meats come from the ______.
  66. The least tender meats come from what area of the body?
    Rib, shoulder, flank and brisket; all of which are the most used muscles in the body
  67. What cooking temperature is best for roasting?
    325 degrees F
  68. What physical characteristics occur in meat when cooked at very high temperatures?
    The meat will shrink and become tough
  69. When should a meat thermometer be used...before or after cooking?
  70. What are the physical and chemical changes that occur when meat is cooked?
    Protein in the meat coagulates, collagen then hydrolyzes to gelatin and softens; therefore, tougher meats need to be cooked well due to more collagen which needs more time to be softened.
  71. Why are cured meats pink in color?
    They are pink from nitrites which is a chemical that inhibits botulism due to the vacuum packed sealing
  72. What are the two types of cooking methods?
    Dry heat and moist heat cooking
  73. What are the types of dry heat cooking?
    frying, broiling, roasting
  74. What type of meats should be cooked in dry heat?
    tender cuts of meat; near backbone such as loin, sirloin
  75. What is a smoke point?
    A high smoke point is the temperature at which fat can be heated before puffs of smoke occur
  76. Which type of meats should not be fried?
    tough cuts of meat
  77. What form of heat is used in broiling?
    radiated heat
  78. What is roasting?
    Roasting is when meat is removed from the oven and is allowed to sit for a given time to allow the temperature to increase by 15-25 degrees F while standing until reach desired temperature
  79. What is "carry-over cooking?"
    It is when meat is removed from oven and allowed to sit so that it doesnt lose its own juices until internal temperature is safe for eating
  80. What are the types of moist heat cooking?
    braising, simmer, steam, stewing
  81. What type of meat is used in moist heat cooking?
    It is used for less tender cuts of meat that has more connective tissue (bottom round, chuck, brisket)
  82. What is braising?
    It is when you flour the meat, brown it and cover it while simmering in a small amount of liquid.
  83. What is simmering?
    When food is heated in water to 170-185 degrees F with the appearance of bubbles
  84. Steam is used to cook meat...

    A. in water
    B. over water
    B. over water
  85. What is stewing?
    Cooking meat in water or other liquids during the cooking process
  86. Fish uses what method of cooking?

    C. both dry and moist heat
  87. What is surimi?
    The purified and frozen minced fish containing a preservative
  88. True or False: Yolk is less concentrated than the white: containing less protein, fat, minerals and vitamins.
    False, the yolk is more concentrated containing more protein, fat, minerals and vitamins by weight
  89. When grading of eggs, a light is passed in front of an egg in front of bright light to view the inside contents, what is this process called?
  90. What are the different grades of eggs?
    AA, A, B
  91. What is the best way to determine if an egg is still fresh?
    A fresh egg will sink to the bottom in a pan of cold water; and it has a dull, rough shell
  92. What are the main functions of eggs in cooking?
    Coagulation, leavening, emulsification
  93. What is syneresis?
    Occurs when liquid is released from a coagulated product
  94. When does syneresis occur?
    Occurs when they are cooked at too high a temperature or too low temperature for too long a time; this creates a tough, watery product
  95. What is leavening?
    It is the amount of air beaten in and retained in the product
  96. An _______ stiffens an egg white foam by tenderizing the protein and allowing it to extend more easily.

    B. Acid
  97. Egg whites at room temperature whip more quickly and yield a larger volume due to a ______ surface tension.

    A. lower
  98. What happens in emulsification?
    Occurs when the protein in egg forms a thin film around droplets of oil, stabilizing the emulsion
  99. Why does egg yolk yield a stiffer, more stable emulsion than egg white?
    Because it has more protein
  100. What methods of heat are used in cooking eggs?
    Moist heat, dry heat
  101. What are moist heat methods of cooking eggs?
    • Poaching, coddling (uses a high quality egg since appearance is important)
    • Hard boiling, soft boiling
  102. Why would vinegar and salt be used when cooking eggs?
    It improves the shape by hastening coagulation
  103. Why do eggs sometimes turn green when overcooked or allowed to cool too slowly?
    It is a combination of iron from the yolk and sulfur from the whole egg; creating ferrous sulfide
  104. What does it mean to have a larger sag in a custard?
    It means that the gel is more tender (soft)
  105. What effect does using dehydrated eggs have on custards?
    The custard will be grayer, less yellow; will be watery and will have an eggy flavor
  106. When cooking with egg substitutes, what are the differences?
    Egg substitues are lower in fat, calories and cholesterol; but often higher in sodium

    There are also color and flavor differences; they appear more orange than yellow.
  107. What happens when eggs are stored in the refrigerator too long?
    They begin to lose carbon dioxide which makes eggs more alkaline; therefore when cooking with old eggs add more acid like cream of tartar
  108. What are the types of fermented milk?
    Cultured buttermilk, sweet acidophilus milk and kefir
  109. How do you make cultured buttermilk?
    Add lactic acid bacteria to SKIMMED or partly skimmed milk
  110. If using buttermilk in the place of regular milk in a recipe, what do you need to increase in the recipe and why?
    You would need to increase the amount of baking soda because buttermilk is more acidic
  111. What is sweet acidophilus milk?
    It is skim milk plus acidophilus bacteria; it has less lactose than regular milk
  112. What physical changes occurs when milk is heated?
    Whey protein precipitates out on the bottom of the pan or on the surface of the milk.
  113. What is done to prevent milk from curdling when cooking?
    Add an acid slowly and agitate it; an acid will precipitate casein
  114. What is the percent of milk fat in butter?
  115. What is the percent of fat in margarine?
    80% vegtable oil or animal fat
  116. When milk is heated what precipitates?
  117. What happens to an acid when it is heated in milk?
    It precipitates casein
  118. Which cream has the most fat?
    • A. Half and Half G. Half and Half, medium
    • B. Light/thin H. Sour cream, whipped
    • C. Medium
    • D. Heavy/thick
    • E. Sour cream
    • F. Whipped Cream
  119. What fat percent range do medium, heavy and whipped cream have?
    • A. Less than 18%
    • B. 18-30%
    • C. 30-36%
    • D. More than 36%
Card Set
Domain 1
Food Science and Composition of Foods