Advanced Government Final

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  1. He authored the essay "Property" in which he contends that "conscience is the most sacred of all property"
    James Madison
  2. This outlines the "executive power" of the President and Vice-president
    Article II
  3. Thomas Jefferson argues that the Declaration of Independence was "an expression of the American mind"
    "Letter to Henry Lee"
  4. The number of Articles of the US Constitution
  5. The Supreme Court holds that Africans brought to the US as slaves cannot be Americans because the Founders never intended them to be included in the phrase "all men are created equal"
    Dred Scott v. Sandford
  6. Argued that Lincoln was a true statesman in spite of his seeming prejudices in favor of white people
    Frederick Douglass
  7. The idea that political power is divided among the central govt and the state govts according to their spheres of activity, and each level of government holds its power from the people rather than from the other level of govt
  8. Limited the free exercise of religion in the context of govt benefits to people convicted of using an illegal drug
    Oregon v. Smith
  9. Alexander Hamilton maintains that the judiciary is the "least dangerous" branch of the federal government because it has neither "the purse" nor "the sword"
    Federalist No. 78
  10. Adams explains why the Continental Congress removed the clause about the slave trade from Jefferson's original draft of the Declaration of Independence
    "Letter to Timothy Pickering"
  11. Madison believes this to be the greatest danger to republican governments
  12. Saw the president as a "steward of the people" and believed that policies should originate from the executive unless prohibited by a law or the Constitution
    Theodore Roosevelt
  13. The Supreme Court holds that freedom of speech includes the right to burn the American flag
    Texas v. Johnson
  14. A phrase from JFK's speech highlighting his thoughts on the role of the president in our government
    "the vital center of action in our whole scheme of government"
  15. The author of the Second Treatise of Government
    John Locke
  16. This is described in The Federalist #78 as "the rights of courts to pronounce legislative acts void, because contrary to the Constitution"
    Judicial Review
  17. Defended the concept of an energetic executive
    Alexander Hamilton
  18. The number of amendments to the US Constitution
  19. Lincoln doesn't believe a single, divided Supreme Court decision can bring about this result, but rather repeated decisions made in similar cases over a period of time
    "fully settled"
  20. He argues that the president has no "undefined residuum of power", only the powers given to him by the text of the Constitution or by Congressional law
    William Howard Taft
  21. The number of justices currently on the Supreme Court
  22. James Madison contends that "the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachment of the others"
    Federalist No. 51
  23. The 14th Amendment requires that states provide this to persons within their jurisdiction
    "equal protection of the laws"
  24. This states that "all legislative Powers herein granted" is given to one Congress made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate
    Article I
  25. Madison's solution for the problem of factions
    "controlling its effects"
  26. In a 1960 speech, he contends that the president must be the "vital center of action" in the federal government, even to the extent of being the legislative, political, and moral leader of the country
    John F. Kennedy
  27. The Supreme Court holds that laws restricting an employee's work hours are unconstitutional
    Lochner v. New York
  28. This outlines the "judicial Power" of the Supreme Court
    Article III
  29. These entitle people to rights like life, liberty, and property
    "the laws of nature and of nature's God"
  30. He denounces the Constitution because "the supreme court under this constitution [will] be exalted above all other power in the government, and subject to no controul"
  31. Staunch abolitionist who believed the Consitution was an evil agreement that protected slaverty
    William Lloyd Garrison
  32. Hamilton argues that republics must have an energetic executive because "energy" in the executive is a leading characteristic of "good government"
    Federalist No. 70
  33. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
    Natural rights
  34. Madison argues that an extended republic can help to control the effects of majority faction and therefore "[i]n the extent and proper structure of the Union... we behold a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government"
    Federalist No. 10
  35. Explained why the constitution of the Confederacy was superior to the constitution of the US
    "The Cornerstone Speech"
  36. He states that "[t]he question, whether the judges are invested with exclusive authority to decide on the constitutionality of a law... Certainly there is not a word in the Constitution which has given that power to them more than to the executive or legislative branches... And in general, that branch which is to act ultimately, and without appeal, on any law, is the rightful expositor of the validity of the law..."
    Thomas Jefferson
  37. Believed that when a Supreme Court has reversed itself several times, no one decision should be seen as final
    Abraham Lincoln
  38. Publius advised the new country that they have a rare opportunity to form a new government based on this
    "reflection and choice"
  39. The Supreme Court ruled that the president did not have the power to seize control of a company without authorization from Congress
    Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer
  40. Madison discusses the reasons why members of the House will serve two years at a time instead of only one
    Federalist No. 53
  41. He supported the Supreme Court as the final interpreter of the Constitution and attacked Andrew Jackson for saying that the president had "a right of individual judgement on constitutional questions", which he regarded as "inconsistent with any proper administration of the Government, or any regular execution of the laws."
    Daniel Webster
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Advanced Government Final
Final Exam
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