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  1. Alternative medicine
  2.  use holistic therapies
    • that minimize side effects, that make treatments more tolerable, and that
    • rebuild the patient's physiology to provide the best odds of long term cancer
    • survival with a good quality of life.
  3. Angiogenesis
    • required for
    • multistage carcinogenesis, the development of new blood vessels.
  4. Antiangiogenic therapy
  5. one of two types of drugs in a new class of medicines that restores health by controlling blood vessel growth.The other medication is called pro-angiogenic therapy
  6. Antioxidants
  7. molecule that inhibits the
    • oxidation of other molecules, Oxidation reactions can produce free
    • radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions
  8. Apoptosis
  9. occurs when one or several
    • cells of a living organism are infected with a virus, leading to cell death,
    • necessary for the normal development of cells and the cell cycle maturation.
  10. Biotherapy
  11. a type of cancer therapy that uses agents to stimulate the body's own immune system to kill cancer. Examples include interleukins,interferons, and hematopoietic growth factors. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with targeted therapy
  12. Cancer cachexia
  13. multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal
    • muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed
    • by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional
    • impairment
  14. Cancer vaccine
  15. belong to a class of
    • substances known as biological response modifiers, that  work by stimulating or restoring the immune
    • system’s ability to fight infections and disease
  16. Carcinogen
  17. producing or tending to
    produce cancer
  18. Carcenogenesis
  19. all types of physical,
    • chemical ....carcinogenesis stage
    • need to act together to generate cancer
  20. Chemoprevention
  21. the use of natural,
    • synthetic or biological agents to reverse, suppress or prevent either the
    • initial phases of carcinogenesis or the progression of premalignant cells to
    • invasive disease
  22. Chemotherapy
  23. usually systemic
    • treatment, meaning that the drugs flow through the
    • bloodstream to nearly every part of the body
  24. Classification
  25. Cancers are classified in
    • two ways: by the type of tissue in which the cancer originates (histological
    • type) and by primary site, or the location in the body where the cancer first
    • developed.
  26. Complementary therapy
  27. such as acupuncture, aromatherapy, art therapy, massage therapy, reflexology
    • and yoga, provide psychological, emotional and spiritual support, and help
    • with symptom control.
  28. Control
  29. The reduction of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality
    • through an orderly sequence from research on interventions and their impact
    • in defined populations to the broad,
    • systematic application of the research results.
  30. Cure
  31. In a complete remission,
    • all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. If you remain in
    • complete remission for 5 years or more, some doctors may say that you are cured
  32. Cytokines
  33. A small protein released
    • by cells that has a specific effect on the interactions between cells, on
    • communications between cells or on the behavior of cells.
  34. Drug resistance
  35. is the reduction in
    effectiveness of a drug ,  in curing a disease or condition
  36. Dumping syndrome
  37. a
    • group of symptoms, including weakness, abdominal discomfort, and sometimes
    • abnormally rapid bowel evacuation, occurring after meals in some patients who
    • have undergone gastric surgery.
  38. Emetogenic
  39. Having the capacity to
    induce emesis (vomiting), a common property of anticancer agents
  40. Epidemiologic studies
  41. is the science that studies the patterns, causes, and effects
    of health and disease conditions in defined populations
  42. Graft-versus-host disease GVHD
  43. common complication
    • following an allogeneic tissue transplant. It is commonly associated with
    • stem cell or bone marrow transplant
  44. Hematopoietic cell transplantation HCT
    • transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stemcells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or
    • umbilical cord blood. It may be autologous (the patient's own stem cells are used) or allogeneic (the stem cells come from a donor).
  45. Hematopoietic growth factors
    • The HGFs are chemicals, generally cytokines and
    • interleukins, that interact with developing immature marrow cells and lead to
    • greater numbers of red cells, white cells, or platelets or combinations of these
  46. Hospice
    • The term hospice refers to an approach to
    • end-of-life care as well as to a type of facility for supportive care of
    • terminally ill patients
  47. Initiation
    • a process in which normal cells are changed so that
    • they are able to form tumors
  48. Integrative medicine
    • healing-oriented medicine that takes account of the whole
    • person, including all aspects of lifestyle
  49. Macrobiotic diet
    • , is adietary regimen which involves eating grains as a staple food, supplemented
    • with otherfoods such
    • as local vegetables, and avoiding the use of highly processed or refined foodsand most
    • animal products
  50. Malignant neoplasm
    • Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as
    • metaplasia or dysplasia.
  51. Metabolic therapy
    • vary from practitioner to practitioner and may
    • include a "natural food" diet, coffee enemas, vitamins, minerals,
    • glandulars, enzymes, laetrile
  52. Metastasis
    • the development of secondary malignant growths
    • at a distance from a primary site of cancer.
  53. Monoclonal antibodies
    • an antibody produced
    • by a single clone of cells or cell line and consisting of identical antibody
    • molecules
  54. Mucositis
    • is the painful inflammation and ulceration of
    • the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect
    • of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer
  55. Myelosuppression
    • Bone marrow suppression is the decrease
    • in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes),
    • carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood
    • clotting (thrombocytes).
  56. N-nitroso compounds NOCs
    • Carcinogenic chemical compounds that are used in
    • the manufacture of some cosmetics, pesticides, and in most rubber products
  57. Neoplasm
    • a new and abnormal growth of tissue in a part of
    • the body, especially as a characteristic of cancer
  58. Neutropenia
    • the presence of
    • abnormally few neutrophils in the blood, leading to increased susceptibility to
    • infection
  59. Nutrition impact symptoms
    • are those symptoms that delay oral intake,  They include, but are not limited to,
    • anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  60. Oncogenes
    • a gene which in certain circumstances can
    • transform a cell into a tumour cell
  61. Oncology
    • the study and
    • treatment of tumours
  62. Oteoradionecrosis
    • is a condition of nonvital bone in a site of
    • radiation injury. ORN can be spontaneous, but it most commonly results from
    • tissue injury. The absence of reserve reparative capacity is a result of the
    • prior radiation injury.
  63. Palliate (palliative care)
    • make (a disease or its symptoms) less severe
    • without removing the cause.
  64. Pancytopenia
    • deficiency of all
    • three cellular components of the blood (red cells, white cells, and platelets).
  65. Phytochemicals
    • any of various biologically
    • active compounds found in plants
  66. Progression
    • is the third and last phase in tumor development.
    • This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the
    • tumor cells
  67. Promotion
    • various factors permit the descendents of a
    • single initiated cell
    • to survive and expand in number
  68. Radiation enteritis
    • Inflammation of the small intestine caused by
    • radiation therapy to the abdomen, pelvis, or rectum
  69. Radiation therapy
    • The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays,
    • gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and
    • shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body
    • (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material
    • placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy
  70. Rate of tumor growth
    • a measure, quantity, or frequency, typically one
    • measured against another quantity or measure
  71. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome SOS
    • is a distinctive and
    • potentially fatal form of hepatic injury that occurs predominantly, if not
    • only, after drug or toxin exposure,   Liver histology demonstrates obstruction
    • of sinusoids in central areas with hepatocyte necrosis
    • and hemorrhage
  72. Staging
    • Performing exams and tests to learn the extent
    • of the cancer within the body, especially whether the disease has spread from
    • the original site to other parts of the body. It is important to know the stage
    • of the disease in order to plan the best treatment
  73. TNM staging system
    • A system to describe the amount and spread of
    • cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and
    • any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby
    • lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the
    • body
  74. Trismus
    • spasm of the jaw
    • muscles, causing the mouth to remain tightly closed, typically as a symptom of
    • tetanus
  75. Tumor
    • An abnormal mass of tissue that results when
    • cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may
    • be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called neoplasm.
  76. Tumor burden
    • Refers to the number of cancer cells, the size of
    • a tumor, or the amount of cancer in the body. Also called tumor load.
  77. Tumor markers
    • A substance found in tissue, blood, or other
    • body fluids that may be a sign of cancer or certain benign (noncancerous)
    • conditions. Most tumor markers are made by both normal cells and cancer cells,
    • but they are made in larger amounts by cancer cells. A tumor marker may help to
    • diagnose cancer, plan treatment, or find out how well treatment is working or
    • if cancer has come back.
  78. Tumor necrosis factor-a (cachectin)
    • A protein made by white blood cells in response
    • to an antigen (substance that causes the immune system to make a specific
    • immune response) or infection. Tumor necrosis factor can also be made in the
    • laboratory. It may boost a person’s immune response, and also may cause
    • necrosis (cell death) of some types of tumor cells. Tumor necrosis factor is
    • being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a type of
    • cytokine. Also called TNF.
  79. Tumor suppressor genes
    • A type of gene that makes a protein called a
    • tumor suppressor protein that helps control cell growth. Mutations (changes in
    • DNA) in tumor suppressor genes may lead to cancer. Also called antioncogene.
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