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- Tunit were strong people, and yet they were driven from their villages by others who were more numerous
- Diamond Jenness identified dorset culture anthropologist from New Zealand. Conducted fieldwork in canada called “Father of Eskimo Archaeology”
- studied “Origin of the Copper Eskimo and Their Copper Culture.”
- independent I culture stops - people stop populating, return with new culture called
Independence II Culture 1000-500 BC
- High Arctic become depopulated
- 700 years later a new archaeological cultural complex emerges that bears resemblance to both Independence I and Pre-Dorset, and exhibits features that later become associated with Dorset Culture such as side-knotches for knives.
- As such Independence II represents a continuation of some previous traditions as well as the introduction of new forms that later become associated with Dorset Culture further to the South.
Dorset (800BC- 1000 AD)
- first identified by Diamond Jenness in 1925 (pre C14 dating).
- Influence from both Pre-Dorset and Independence II
- First unequivocal evidence of seasonal subsistence strategies.
- Spring and summer spent pursuing Walrus and seal, fishing in late summer, and winter spent in semi-subterranean houses on the coast.
- No evidence of complex float equipment
- Sampling bias? Snow houses on the ice may not be visible.
- dorset is seasonal
- dorset in summer - out on the coast
- dorset in late summer - fishing camps
- in winter - permanent lodgings
- no evidence of boats and floatation equipment
- evidence of snow knives
- not ancestral to inuits
made up of ivory, bone and wood
Whalers in Skin Boats: Alaska 1000 BC- 1000 AD
- Choris cultural complex similar to siberian culture, 1st attempt for people to experiment with specialized marine extraction
- Norton culture complex in western alaska
- Earliest evidence for material culture that we can positively attribute and trace through time to contemporary Eskimo lifeways.
- The use of skin vessels (kayaks)
- Introduction of the float harpoon.
- Old Bering Sea Culture - in siberia and alaska
- Punuk Culture - connected by all of this, it is out of this that 2nd wave
The Second Wave: Thule (1000-1600AD)
- Thule emerges as a cultural complex out of previous Alaskan traditions.
- There is a global warming trend in the centuries which partially opened swaths of the sea-ice of the High Arctic
- Connected to hunting of large whales
- use of whale bones in material culture; settlement structures
- Spreads rapidly across the Arctic.
- ancestral to inuit
The Little Ice-Age and the Development of Inuit Culture
- 1350 - global little ice age - cooling period where temperatures dropped significantly
- results in the disappearance of Norse on Greenland
- The break-up of Thule communities into smaller local variants.
- ancestors of the inuit
- development of Inuit communities firmly rooted in Thule cultural tradition
- material culture associated with inuit
- materials seen today can be traced back to thule populations
- eskimo - word comes from algonquian speakers
- eskimo: refers to people who wear snowshoes or foreigners who live beyond us in the snow
- inuit refers to language speakers
- in Alaska use eskimo
- in north america use inuit
- Eskimo-Aleut Languages: Aleut, Yupik, Inuit