Test 3 Lecture 29

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  1. Tunit: Dorset
    • Tunit were strong people, and yet they were driven from their villages by others who were more numerous
    • Diamond Jenness identified dorset culture anthropologist from New Zealand. Conducted fieldwork in canada called “Father of Eskimo Archaeology”
    • studied “Origin of the Copper Eskimo and Their Copper Culture.”
    • independent I culture stops - people stop populating, return with new culture called
  2. Independence II Culture 1000-500 BC
    • High Arctic become depopulated
    • 700 years later a new archaeological cultural complex emerges that bears resemblance to both Independence I and Pre-Dorset, and exhibits features that later become associated with Dorset Culture such as side-knotches for knives.
    • As such Independence II represents a continuation of some previous traditions as well as the introduction of new forms that later become associated with Dorset Culture further to the South.
  3. Dorset (800BC- 1000 AD)
    • first identified by Diamond Jenness in 1925 (pre C14 dating).
    • Influence from both Pre-Dorset and Independence II
    • First unequivocal evidence of seasonal subsistence strategies.
    • Spring and summer spent pursuing Walrus and seal, fishing in late summer, and winter spent in semi-subterranean houses on the coast.
    • No evidence of complex float equipment
    • Sampling bias?  Snow houses on the ice may not be visible.
    • dorset is seasonal
    • dorset in summer - out on the coast
    • dorset in late summer - fishing camps
    • in winter - permanent lodgings
    • no evidence of boats and floatation equipment
    • evidence of snow knives
    • not ancestral to inuits
  4. Image Upload 1
  5. ART
    Image Upload 2
    made up of ivory, bone and wood
  6. Whalers in Skin Boats: Alaska 1000 BC- 1000 AD
    • Choris cultural complex similar to siberian culture, 1st attempt for people to experiment with specialized marine extraction
    • Norton culture complex in western alaska
    • Earliest evidence for material culture that we can positively attribute and trace through time to contemporary Eskimo lifeways.
    • The use of skin vessels (kayaks)
    • Introduction of the float harpoon.
    • Old Bering Sea Culture - in siberia and alaska
    • Punuk Culture - connected by all of this, it is out of this that 2nd wave
  7. The Second Wave: Thule (1000-1600AD)
    • Thule emerges as a cultural complex out of previous Alaskan traditions.
    • There is a global warming trend in the centuries which partially opened swaths of the sea-ice of the High Arctic
    • Connected to hunting of large whales
    • use of whale bones in material culture; settlement structures
    • Spreads rapidly across the Arctic.
    • ancestral to inuit
  8. The Little Ice-Age and the Development of Inuit Culture
    • 1350 - global little ice age - cooling period where temperatures dropped significantly
    • results in the disappearance of Norse on Greenland
    • The break-up of Thule communities into smaller local variants.
    • ancestors of the inuit
    • development of Inuit communities firmly rooted in Thule cultural tradition
  9. Thule:
    Image Upload 3
    • material culture associated with inuit
    • materials seen today can be traced back to thule populations
  10. Inuit
    • eskimo - word comes from algonquian speakers
    • eskimo: refers to people who wear snowshoes or foreigners who live beyond us in the snow
    • inuit refers to language speakers
    • in Alaska use eskimo
    • in north america use inuit
    • Eskimo-Aleut Languages: Aleut, Yupik, Inuit
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Test 3 Lecture 29
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