cerebellum and cerebrum

  1. what signs of a cerebellopontine angle tumour might be present?
    CN V, VII, VIII, papilloedema
  2. what signs of a midline cerebellar lesion may exist
    truncal ataxia, abnormal heel-toe walking, abnormal speech
  3. what are causes of bilateral cerebellar disease?
    MS, friedrich's ataxia, hypothyroidism, phenytoin, paraneoplastic syndromes, trauma, arnold chiari malformation, SOL, SVA
  4. what are specific signs of friedrich's ataxia?
    pes cavus, kyphoscoliosis, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, DM
  5. how can alcohol be distinguished from cerebellar lesions?
    alcohol tends to spare the arms
  6. what are causes of unilateral cerebellar disease?
    SOL, ischaemia, trauma, MS
  7. what are causes of spastic and ataxic parapariesis in adolescence?
    spinocerebellar degeneration e.g. marie's spastic ataxia
  8. what are causes of spastic and ataxic parapariesis in in young adults?
    MS, spinocerebellar degeneration, syphilis, arnold-chiari malformation
  9. what are causes of spastic and ataxic parapariesis in adulthood?
    MS, syringomyelia, infarct, craniospinal junction lesion (e.g. meningioma)
  10. what is the babcock sentence?
    one thing a nation needs in order to be rich and great is a large, secure supply of wood
  11. What ten features comprise the AMT?
    age, DOB, address, count, time, year, palce, 2 persons, WWI, monarch, address recall
  12. what are the signs of parietal lobe function?
    acalculia, agraphia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia (Gerstmann's syndrome)
  13. what is a marcus gunn pupil?
    relative afferent pupillary defect
  14. what is the accomodation reflex
    convergence + constriction
  15. which CNs are the midbrain nuclei?
    III + IV
  16. which CNs are the pontine nuclei?
    V, VI, VII, VIII
  17. which CNs are the medulla nuclei?
    IX, X, XI, XII
  18. which nerves run through the cavernous sinus?
    III, IV, VI, Va
  19. what are the causes of a bilateral opthalmoplegia?
    MG, ocular myopathy, thyroid, guillain-barre, basal meningitis or SOL or CVA
  20. what are causes of a downwards nystagmus?
    foramen magnum, phenytoin, alcohol
  21. what is a marcus gunn pupil?
    relative afferent pupillary defect
  22. what is a normal rinne's test?
    positive - air is louder usually
  23. what is a normal weber's test?
    normally no lateralisation
  24. which cranial nerves have dual innervation from the cerebral hemispheres?
    VII, V, X, XII.
  25. what are the causes of opthalmoplegia?
    CN palsy, ocular muscles (e.g. grave's), squint, stroke, INO, bilateral
  26. What are causes of internuclear opthalmoplegia
    MS, guillan barre, ischemia, SOL, autoimmune (SLE, CTDs), drugs (phenytoin, barb), infection (HIV, lyme), wernicke's, trauma
  27. what are causes of bilateral opthalmoplegia?
    Myasthesia gravis, ocular myopathy, dysthyroid, Guillain Barre, basal meningitis, SOL, CVA
  28. what are causes of unilateral ptosis?
    IIIrd nerve palsy, horner's, idiopathic
  29. what are causes of bilateral ptosis?
    MG, myopathy, congenital, syrnigomyelia (causing bilateral horner's)
  30. What are causes of miosis?
    eye (cholinergic drugs, iritis, keratitis, congenital myosis), peripheral sympathetic pathways (carotid aneurysm, apical lung tumours, cervical rib, brachial plexus trauma), brainstem (syphilis, CVA), spine cord (MS, fracture,
  31. what is argyll-robertson pupil?
    Accomodates, but does not constrict. Classically syphillis, also diabetes.
  32. what are the specific signs of supranuclear palsy? (as opposed to CN lesion)
    bilateral, no diplopia. Pupils fixed, often unequal. Reflex eye movements intact.
  33. what are signs of a progressive supranuclear palsy?
    loss of vertical, later horizontal gaze. Assocaited extrapyramidal signs, neck rigidity, dementia.
  34. what are causes of supranuclear palsy?
    progressive SPS, parinaud's disease (loss of vertical gaze associated with nystagmus), oculogyric crisis (post-encephalitic parkinsno's disease)
  35. what are causes of deafness?
    conductive (wax, otitis media, otosclerosis, tympanic membrane trauma), sensorineural (presbycusis, noise induced, syphilis, congenital, drug induced, meniere's, infections, acoustic neuroma, hypothyroid, diabetes
  36. what drugs may cause deafness?
    aminoglycoside, aspirin, quinine, some diuretics, some beta blockers
  37. what infections may cause deafness?
    CSOM, mumps, HSV, meningitis, syphilis
  38. how might you tell a proprioceptive/dorsal column dysfunction from cerebellar lesion?
    Romberg test - cerebellar lesion will be ataxic even with eyes open. Other will only with eyes closed.
  39. what are major causes of faciculations?
    MND, upper or lower motor neuron, peripheral neuropathy, primary myopathy, thyrotoxicosis
  40. what are the most common causes of peripheral neuropathy?
    diabetes, alcohol, vitamin deficiency
  41. what are genetic causes of peripheral neuropathy?
    charcot-marie-tooth, freidrich's ataxia
  42. what are metabolic/endocrine causes of peripheral neuropathy?
    diabetes, CRF, porphyria, amyloid, liver failure, hypothyroid
  43. what toxins can cause peripheral neuropathy?
    alcohol, fluoroquinolones, vincritin, phenytoin, nitrofurantoin, isoniazid, heavy metals, excess vit b6.
  44. what inflammatory diseases can cause peripheral neuropathy?
    guillain-barre, SLE, leprosy, sjogren's
  45. which vitamin deficiencies can cause peripheral neuropathy?
    a,e, b1, b12
  46. what acquired causes of myopathy exist?
    PACESOD polymyositis + dermatomyositis, Alcohol, Cancer, Endocrine, Sarcoid, Oxteomalacia, Drugs (chloroquine, steroids)
  47. what are causes of proximal myopathy with peripheral neuropathy?
    paraneoplastic syndrome, alcohol, hypothyroid, CTDs
  48. what are causes of footdrop?
    common fibular nerve palsy, sciatic nerve palsy, L4+5 root lesion, peripheral motor neuropathy, distal myopathy, MND, stroke
  49. what are causes of sensory ataxia?
    peripheral neuropathy, dorsal column dysfunction (tabes dorsalis, B12 def)
  50. what are causes of asterixis?
    hepetic encephalopathy, urea (coarse tremor), CO2 retention, low glucose, barbiturate OD
  51. what are the parkinson's plus disorders?
    multiple system atrophies, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degenertaion, diffuse lewy body disease
  52. what are the causes of secondary parkinson's disease?
    drugs (phenothiazines, methyldopa), post-encephalitis, MPTP toxicity, post-traumatic, wilson's disease, toxins (CO, manganese, mercury)
  53. what are the special tests for parkinson's?
    gait, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, glabellar tab, absence of blinking, titubation (tremor of head)
  54. what is palilalia?
    repetition of end of word sometimes in parkinsons
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cerebellum and cerebrum